Physicomechanical Characteristic of Slag Geopolymer Mortar Enhanced with Multiwall Carbon Nano-tube

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2015 by IJETT Journal
Volume-21 Number-1
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : A.B.farag, A.M.Ramadan, Tarek A.Osman, H.M. Khater, Kesmat Yosri


A.B.farag, A.M.Ramadan, Tarek A.Osman, H.M. Khater, Kesmat Yosri"Physicomechanical Characteristic of Slag Geopolymer Mortar Enhanced with Multiwall Carbon Nano-tube", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V21(1),52-60 March 2015. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group


The influence of multiwall Carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) addition on the physicomechanical properties of geopolymer mortar produced from alkaline activation of industrial aluminosilicate slag waste has been studied through the measurement of compressive strength, water absorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The control geopolymer mix composed of (50:50wt., %) water cooled slag (WCS) passing 90μm and quartz sand passing 1 mm, the alkaline activator used for geopolymer activation is (6wt.,%) NaOH from the total used binder. MWCNTs added to the geopolymer mortar in ratio from 0 up to 1 wt., % with 0.2% increment from the total binder, however gelenium C-315 super-plasticizer used in the range from (1.7- 5.1%) from the total binder weight, depending on the added nano-tube, for better dispersion and prevent agglomeration of the added MWCNTs. However, MWCNTs sonicated with the added super-plasticizer which increase with MWCNTs ratios for 15 min at 40ºC for effective dispersion. The results showed that, an enhancement in the physicomechanical properties of resulted mortars with MWCNTs addition up to 0.8%, reflecting the good dispersion within the matrix, leading to strengthen and form cohesive structure, while further increase in the MWCNTs leads to agglomeration and so hinder interaction between the binding materials. Results also showed increase in compressive strength by 13% and 17% upon using 0.2 and 0.8% MWCNTs and decrease by 2 % upon using 1% MWCNTs for 90 days using mortar specimen.


[1]Sumajouw, DMJ.; Hardjito, D.; Wallah, SE.; Rangan, BV.; “Geopolymer Concrete for a Sustainable Future”, Presented: Green Processing Conference, Fremantle, WA., 2004.
[2]Davidovits, J."Chemistry of geopolymeric systems, in: Terminology". Geopolymer’99Second International Conference, Saint-Quentin, France. 1999.
[3] Lijima ,S. " Helical microtubes of graphitic carbon Nature" 1991; 354(7); 56-58.
[4] Ghandi ,R.; Kamal, D. " Evaluation of Young's modulus of single walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) Reinforced Concrete Composite", Journal of engineering and applied sciences, 2008; 3(6): 504-515.
[5] Ando, Y. "the preparation of carbon nanotubes "full Sci Technol 1994; 173-180.
[6] Maser, WK.; AM, Martinez, MT. "Production of carbon nanotubes: the lightapproach". Carbon2002;40(10):1685-1695.
[7] Oncel, C.; Yurum, Y. "Carbon nanotubes synthesis via the catalytic CVDmethod: areview on the effect of reaction parameters, fullerene, Nanotubes, carbon Nanotubes" 2006; 14:17-37.
[8] Li, X.; Cao, A.; Jung, YJ.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, PM. "Bottom – up growth of carbon nanotubes multilayers: unprecedent growth Nanoletters".2005; 5(10):1997-2000.
[9] Musso, S.; Porro, S.; Giorcelli, M.; Chiodoni, A.; Ricciardi, C.; Tagliaferro, A. "Macroscopic growth of carbon nanotubes mats and their mechanical properties" Carbon 2007; 45: 1133-1136.
[10] Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Qian, D.; Dickey, EC. Carbon 2001;39: 1681- 1687.
[11]Musso, S.; Giorcelli, M.; Pavese, M.; Bavese, M.; Bianco, S.; Rovere, M.;Tagliaferro, A. "Improving macroscopic physical and mechanical properties of thick layers of alignedmultiwall carbon nanotubes by annealing treatment". Diam Relat Mater 2008; 17: 542-547.
[12] Osswald, S.; Havel, M.; Gogotsi, Y. "Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy". J Raman Spectrosc 2007;38:728-736.
[13] Musso, S.; Porro, S.; Vinante, M.; Vanzetti, L.; Ploeger, R.; Giorcelli, M.;et al. "Modifaction of MWNTs obtained by thermal CVD". Diam Relat Mater. 2007; 16: 1183-1187.
[14] Musso, S.; Jean- Marc, T.; Giuseppe, F.; Alberto, T. " Influnce of carbon nanotubes structure on the mechanical behavior of cement composites", composite Science and Technology 2009; 69: 1985-1990.
[15] Chen, SJ.; Collins, FG.; Macleod, AJN.; Pan, Z.; Duan, WH.; Wang, CM. "Carbon nanotube-cement: a retrospect". The ISE Journal Part A: Civil Struct Eng 2011;4(4):254–265.
[16] Gao, D.; Sturm, M.; Mo, YL." Electrical resistance of carbon-nanofiber concrete". Smart Mater Struct 2009;18(9):1–7.
[17] Heister, E.; Lamprecht, C.; Neves, V.; Tîlmaciu, C.; Datas, L.; Emmanuel, F. E.; et al. "Higher dispersion efficacy of functionalized carbon nanotubes in chemical and biological environments". ACS Nano 2010;4(5):2615–2626.
[18] Reich, S.; Thomsen, C.; Maultzsch, J. "Carbon Nanotubes: Basic Concepts and Physical Properties". Germany Wiley-VCH, 2004.
[19] Collins, F.; Lambert, F.; Duan, WH. "The influence of admixtures on the dispersion, workability, and strength of carbon nanotube–OPC paste mixtures". Cem Concr Compos 2012; 34(9):1067–1074.
[20] Weitzel, B.; Hansen, MR.; Kowald, TL.; Müller, T.; Spiess, HW.; Trettin, HFR. "Influence of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Microstructure of CSH-Phases” , In proceeding of 13th congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 3-8 july 2011, Madrid, Spain.
[21] Bakharev, T. “Thermal behaviour of geopolymers prepared using class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing”. Cement Concrete Res 2006; 36: 1134-1147.
[22] Panias, D.; I.P. Giannopoulou; T. Perraki.” Effect of synthesis parameters on the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymers”. Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 2007; 301: 246-254.
[23]ASTM C20, " Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of Burned Refractory Brick and Shapes by Boiling Water", 2010.
[24] Jiang, X.; Kowald, T.; Trettin,R. ”Carbon nanotubes as a new reinforcememt material for modern cement-based binders”RILEM proceeding,2nd international symposium on Nanotechnology in construction 2005;209-213.
[25] Kowald, Tl.; Mȕ ller, T.; Spiess,Hw.; Trettin, HFR."Influence of Multi walled carbon Nanotubes on the microstructure of CSH phases", In 13rd international conference of chemistry of cement, Madrid 2011.

MWCNT, Slag, dispersion, geopolymer, activation