Synthesis of Graphene Oxide using Modified Hummer’s Method and its Reduction using Hydrazine Hydrate

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2016 by IJETT Journal
Volume-40 Number-2
Year of Publication : 2016
Authors : Anu Saini, Ashok Kumar, Vijay Kumar Anand, Suresh Chander Sood
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V40P211


Anu Saini, Ashok Kumar, Vijay Kumar Anand, Suresh Chander Sood"Synthesis of Graphene Oxide using Modified Hummer’s Method and its Reduction using Hydrazine Hydrate", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V40(2),67-71 October 2016. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group

Graphene is a hot area of research because of its unique and remarkable properties. These properties have invoked researchers to use this form of carbon in various potential applications. One of the bottlenecks in developing such application is mass production of graphene. Hummer’s Method is one of the easiest and economical methods to synthesize huge amount of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. Graphene Oxide (GO) was prepared from graphite powder using modified Hummer’s method, followed by reduction of exfoliated GO with hydrazine hydrate which resulted in formation of high surface area two dimensional structure consisting of RGO flakes and nanosheets. To obtain porous and layered structure of RGO, hydrothermal reduction was performed at an elevated temperature. The synthesized reduced GO was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate the morphological and physicochemical changes occurred in exfoliated graphite. In XRD results, it was found that 2?= 26.4° peak with interplanar spacing (d002) of 0.335nm of graphite powder disappeared, while another significant peak observed at 2? =11.95° with interplanar spacing of 0.754 nm demonstrated successful oxidation of graphite and formation of GO. A diffraction peak obtained at 2? =22.5° clearly indicated that upon hydrothermal reduction, reduced GO flakes were formed. SEM results also support the formation of RGO since particle size lies in nanometric range (6-20 nm).


[1] F.Y. Ban, S.R. Majid, N.M. Huang, H.N. Lim, “Graphene Oxide and Its Electrochemical Performance”, International Journal of Electrochemical Science,2012, Volume 7, pp.4345 – 4351.
[2] Karthikeyan Krishnamoorthy, Murugan Veerapandian, Gni- Shik Kim and Sang Jae Kim, “A One Step Hydrothermal Approach for the Improved Synthesis of Graphene Nanosheets”, 2012, Current Nanoscience, Volume 8,pp.934- 938.
[3] Sungjin Park and Rodney S. Ruoff, “Chemical methods for the production of graphenes”, 2009, Nature Nanotechnology
[4] Leila Shahriary, Anjali A. Athawale, 2014,” Graphene Oxide Synthesized by using Modified Hummers Approach”, 2014, International Journal of Renewable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Volume. 02, Issue No. 01.
[5] Jianguo Song, Xinzhi Wang, and Chang-Tang Change,, “Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide”,2014, Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2014, Article ID 276143, pp.1-6
[6] Shabnam Sheshmani and Marzieh Arab Fashapoyeh, “Suitable Chemical Methods for Preparation of Graphene Oxide, Graphene and Surface Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets”,2013, Acta Chim. Slov., Volume 60, pp.813– 825
[7] M. Ghorbani, H. Abdizadeh, M. R. Golobostanfard, “Reduction of Graphene Oxide via Modified Hydrothermal Method”,2015, Procedia Materials Science ,Volume 11 ,pp.326 – 330
[8] E.D. Dikio, F.T. Thema, A.M. Farah, N.D. Shooto, “Onestep reduction, characterization and magnetic behavior of exfoliated graphene oxide”,2013, Materials Science-Poland, Volume 31,Issue 1, pp. 59-64.
[9] Ning Cao and Yuan Zhang, 2015,” Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide Preparation by Hummers’ Method and Related Characterization”, Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2015, Article ID 168125.
[10] Sasha Stankovich , Dmitriy A. Dikin , Richard D. Piner , Kevin A. Kohlhaas ,Alfred Kleinhammes , Yuanyuan Jia , Yue Wu , SonBinh T. Nguyen , Rodney S. Ruoff , “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide” 2007,Carbon,Volume 45,pp.1558- 1565.
[11] William Ignatius Hayes, Paul Joseph , Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal andPagona Papakonstantinou,“Production of reduced graphene oxide via hydrothermal reduction in an aqueous sulphuric acid suspension and its electrochemical behavior”,2014, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 361-380.
[12] Li, D., Muller, M. B., Gilje, S., Kaner, R. B. & Wallace, G. G. (2008) “Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets”,Nature Nanotechnology, Volume 3,Issue 2,pp. 101-105.
[13] Vandana Sharma, Avesh Garg and Suresh Chander Sood, “Graphene Synthesis via Exfoliation of Graphite by Ultrasonication”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 2015,Volume 26,pp.38-42
[14] Changjing Fu , Guogang Zhao , Haijun Zhang, Shuang Li, “Evaluation and Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries”,2013, International Journal of Electrochemical Science,Volume8,pp. 6269 – 6280.

Exfoliation Reduced Graphene Oxide, Hydrothermal Reduction, SEM, XRD, Substrate.