Deformation of Visual Environment in Kirkuk City

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2017 by IJETT Journal
Volume-47 Number-6
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Samal Osman Saied Baban, AbdulrazaqZamilMenshid Al-saedi


Samal Osman Saied Baban, AbdulrazaqZamilMenshid Al-saedi "Deformation of Visual Environment in Kirkuk City", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V47(6),322-328 May 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group

Recently, Iraq had witnessedhuge development in the field of materials and construction that lead to various types of residential and commercial communities that influence the urban, environmental, social, and economic aspects of the city. The bad situations that Iraqi cities suffer during the last two decades, and due to the absence of an efficient urban planning, and strict regulations that organize cities' land-use according to their master plan, and those that decide the relationship between buildings- spaces and their surroundings as well as the lack of visual organization for the elements and their relationships within the urban façade; all that have led to a visual deformation of the local urban environment.This paper discusses the deformation of the visual environment (townscape)in Kirkuk city as a case study, as it studies the impact of three factors in increasing the visual deformation of the townscape; first, the lack of organization of form's elements and their relationships. Second, the impact of the exaggeration of using elements and materials, and third is the impact of the lack of strict rules and regulations.


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Visual Deformation, Townscape, Kirkuk City, Visual Environment, Urban Physical Components, Mass and Void Relationship, Urban Facade.