Lead Pollution in Iraqi Kurdistan Region

  ijett-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2013 by IJETT Journal
Volume-4 Issue-6                      
Year of Publication : 2013
Authors : Hamed M. Jassim


Hamed M. Jassim."Lead Pollution in Iraqi Kurdistan Region". International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). V4(6):2613-2619 Jun 2013. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group.


In addition to the research which was published by the authors which dealt with different environmental issues in Iraqi Kurdistan, this research deals with a specific type of very dangerous pollution to the health and the environment which is represented by lead as a hazardous and poisonous matter. This environmental issue was tackled in two ways. The first one is a result of the big increase in the volume of vehicles which are registered and used in the region during the last few years which is accompa nied by a comparable increase in the numbers of scrap batteries with a potential risk of what they contain from lead which is regarded as a very dangerous contaminant to the health and environment and also Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) which is contaminant as wel l. The second environmental hazard is caused by the large increase in oil production and refining in Kurdistan during the last few years. This is accompanied by a comparable increase in the production of Gasoline which is connected by an imminent increase in the consumed Tetra Ethyl Lead ( TEL ) which is used as an additive to the Gasoline in order to improve its qualities and to increase its octane number. The emitted lead to the air from this TEL after being used is proved to be as a very harmful and haz ardous substance. The researchers have collected some statistics from reliable sources to be used as a tool to perform this research and to tackle these environmental issues in a quantitative manner. At the end, some relevant conclusions were deduced an d adequate recommendations were made as outlined below: ? The big increase in the numbers of vehicles which are registered and used in Kurdistan Region generally, which is accompanied by a comparable increase in the used scrap batteries and the connected in crease in the production of lead pollutant as a very hazardous and poisonous matter was in the order of 11.51 times between 2006 and 2011, whereby the amount of lead produced from scrap batteries reached an amount of 3705 tons in the year 2011. ? In addition to these amounts of lead pollution from scrap batteries which are left on the ground surface, another pollution due to Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) as a component of these left scrap batteries was recorded during that period but to a lesser extent. The increase of pollution due to this acid increased by 11.52 times between 2006 and 2011. The recorded amount of this pollutant acid reached 841 tons in 2011. ? The increase in the capacities of oil refining in Kurdistan Region, which indicated an overall increased le vel of consumption of TEL (Tetra Ethyl Lead) by the order of 12.4 times between 2006 and 2011, is accompanied by an imminent increase of the risk of lead pollution in the same order during that period, whereby the amount of pollution due to lead from such source reached an amount of 1039 tons during 2011.


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hazardous, pollutant, contaminant, TEL ( Tetra Ethyl Lead) , octane number, emission, catalytic, antiknock, automotive, toxic, occupational disease.