Effect of Fermented Cassava Waste Water as Admixture on Some Physic-Mechanical Properties of Solid Sandcrete Blocks

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2019 by IJETT Journal
Volume-67 Issue-10
Year of Publication : 2019
Authors : Akpokodje O. I., Uguru. H 
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V67I10P235


MLA Style: Akpokodje O. I., Uguru. H   "Demand Forecast Using Markov Chain" International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology 67.10 (2019):199-205.

APA Style:Akpokodje O. I., Uguru. H,Demand Forecast Using Markov Chain International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 67(10),199-205

This study investigated the effect of cassava waste water on sandcrete blocks. For the purpose of this study, two groups of sandcrete blocks were produced with fine aggregates to cement ratio of 6:1. A water/cassava waste water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.5 was adopted. The blocks were cured by sprinkling method using fresh tap water.Preliminary investigation of some of the physical characteristics (Sieve analysis, porosity, moisture content and specific gravity) of the fineaggregates was carried out. The tests results revealed that the fine aggregates met the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS); the silt content was 3%, porosity 41.5%, and specific gravity 2.62. In addition the compressive strength, thewater absorption rate and thedrying rate of the sandcrete blocks produced with fresh water and withfermented cassava waste water were determined at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after moulding. Results obtained showed that cassava waste water significantly (p ?0.05) affects the compressive strength, water absorption rate and drying rate of the blocks. Sandcrete blocks produced from cassava waste water had compressive strength of 3.38 N.mm2at 28 curing days; while the fresh water sandcrete blocks recorded compressive strength of 2.04 N/mm2at 28 curing days. The results further revealed that sandcrete blocks produced with cassava waste water had a lowerwater absorption rate (4.73%), when compared with result ofthe sandcrete blocks produced with fresh water (8.10%). These results showed that thesandcrete blocks produced with cassava waste water satisfied both NIS and BS requirement. In addition, the results obtainedsuggest that sandcrete block produced using cassava waste water is a durable building material, mostly in areas exposed to high moisture levels and temperature.


[1] V. Kuete.Physical, hematological, and histopathological signs of toxicity induced by African medicinal plants. Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 635-657. 2014.
[2] FAO. FAOSTAT database.(2019). World Cassava production. Available at: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
[3] O.I. Akpokodje and H. Uguru.Impact of farming methods on some Nutritional qualities of cassava roots.International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6 (4): 275-284. 2019.
[4] S.A. Osakwe. Effect of cassava processing mill effluent on physical and chemical properties of soils in Abraka and Environs, Delta State, Nigeria.Chemistry and Materials Research, 2(7):27-40. 2012.
[5] S.M. Sam, G.J. Esenowo and I.R. Udosen.Biochemical characterization of cassava processing waste water and its effect on the growth of maize seedling.Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science.25(2):12-20. 2017,
[6] O.I. Akpokodje,H. Uguru, and D. Esegbuyota. Remediation of cassava effluent contaminated soil using organic soap solution: Case study of soil physical properties and plant growth performance. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 21(3): 1-11. 2018.
[7] O. Eboibi, O.I. Akpokodje, andH. Uguru.Bioremediation of soil contaminated with cassava effluent using organic soap solution. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology.12(6):50-57. 2018
[8] K. Dov.Design and Construction Failures, MCGraw-HillInc, United States of America. 1991.
[9] B.K. Baidenand M. Tuuli. Impact of quality control practices in sandcrete blocks production, Journal of Architectural Engineering, 10(2): 55-60. 2004.
[10] S. Palmquist. Compressive Behaviour of Concrete with Recycled Aggregates.Ph.D. Thesis, TUFTS University. 2003
[11] B.E. Adewumi, A.O. Familusi, A.A. Olatunji,.and B.O. Adegbenle. Effects of cassava effluent in concrete production.International Journal of Sciences, Engineering & Environmental Technology (IJOSEET), 1(7): 49-55. 2016.
[12] Committee on Review of Decisions, Sandcrete Blocks, Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, Lagos, Nigeria. 1985.
[13] E. Hewayde, M.L. Nehdi, E. Allouche and G. Nakhla.Using concrete admixtures for sulphuric acid resistance.Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Construction Materials.25–35.2007. (doi: 10.1680/coma.2007.160.1.25).
[14] H. Mahmoud, Z.A. Beleland C.Nwakaire. Groundnut shell ash as a partial replacement of cement in sandcrete blocks production. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 1(3): 2012.
[15] S. Duna and F.B. Wamyil.Effect of acidic environment on hollow sandcrete blocks.International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 47(7): 399- 405. 2017
[16] A.P. Adewuyi, O. A. Olaniyi,O.S. Olafusi, and A.S. Fawumi. Compressive and flexural behaviour of unstressed concrete substructure in cassava effluent contaminated soils. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5:239-248. 2015.
[17] E. M. Mbadikea and A.U. Elinwa.Effect of salt water in the production of concrete.Nigerian Journal of Technology, 30 (2): 105 – 110. 2011.
[18] NIS-444.Quality standard for ordinary Portland cement.Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria. 2003
[19] M.S. Nwakaudu, F.L. Kamen,G. Afube,A.A. Nwakaudu, and I.S. Ike. Impact of cassava processing effluent on agricultural soil: A case study of maize growth. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), 3(5): 881-885. 2002.
[20] Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC).Official methods of analysis.15thEdn.Association Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D.C. 805-845.1990
[21] APHA. In: Eaton AD, Clescer LS, Rice EW, Greenberg AE, Franson MAH (eds.) Standards Methods for examination of waters and wastewaters APHA 21st edition Washington DC. 2005.
[22] M.T. Osobamiro. Determination of the concentration of total cyanide in waste water of a tobacco company in southwestern Nigeria.J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage.16 (1): 61 – 63. 2012.
[23] NIS 2000, NIS 87: 2000, 2004. Nigerian Industrial Standard for Sandcrete Blocks, Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos, (2005).
[24] D.P Coduto.Foundation Design: Principles and Practice Second., New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2001.
[25] C.E. Reynolds and J.C. Steedman. Reinforced Concrete Designer?s Handbook (10th ed.): E & FN Spon, Taylor and Francis Group, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE. 1999
[26] E.O. Aiyewalehinmi and S.P. Akande. Comparison distilled water and cassava waste water as an admixture sandcrete blocks. International Journal of Latest Research in Engineering and Technology, 1 (6): 01-07. 2015.
[27] S.O. Odeyemi, M.A. Akinpelu, O.D. Atoyebi, K.J. Orire. Quality assessment of sandcrete blocks produced in Adeta, Kwara state. Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 37(1):53 – 59. 2018.
[28] S.O. Odeyemi, O.A. Adeyemi, and M.A. Akinpelu. Workability and Compressive Strength Assessment of Concrete mixed with Cassava Waste Water. Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering, 14 (1): 1260-1274. 2017.
[29] T.N. Boob. Performance of saw-dust in low cost sandcrete blocks, American Journal of Engineering Research. 3(4):197-206. 2014.
[30] A.P. Cardoso, E. Mirione, M. Ernesto, F. Massaza, J. Cliff, M. R. Haque and J. H. Bradbury.Processing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens.Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18, 451–460. 2005.
[31] British Standards Institution. Methods of testing for soils for Civil Engineering purposes. London. 1377. 1990.

Cassava waste water, sandcrete blocks,physical characteristics, compressive strength, water absorption, drying rate