Hydro-geochemical Investigation of Groundwater and Surface water Quality in Minna Metropolis North Central, Nigeria

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
  
© 2019 by IJETT Journal
Volume-67 Issue-8
Year of Publication : 2019
Authors : Sodangi, A.A , Esuabanga, W.E , Ologun, S , Osuorji, G.C
  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V67I8P217

MLA 

MLA Style: Sodangi, A.A , Esuabanga, W.E , Ologun, S , Osuorji, G.C  "Hydro-geochemical Investigation of Groundwater and Surface water Quality in Minna Metropolis North Central, Nigeria" International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology 67.8 (2019):98-108.

APA Style: Sodangi, A.A , Esuabanga, W.E , Ologun, S , Osuorji, G.C. Hydro-geochemical Investigation of Groundwater and Surface water Quality in Minna Metropolis North Central, Nigeria  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 67(8),98-108.

Abstract
This study investigated the trend of ground and surface water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in Minna Metropolis. Geologically, the area consists of granite and gneiss. Twenty-four water samples were collected (7-surface and 17 groundwater) and subjected to physiochemical analyses. The instruments used in the field were bottles, thermometer, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH meter. The water analysis results showed abundance of major cations and anions of ground water in the following order: Mg2+>Na+>Ca2+>K+>Cu2+>Fe2+>Pb2+ and SO42-->PO43->NO3->CO32->Cl->HCO3-, while in surface water the order was: Mg2+>Ca2+>Na+>K+>Cu2+>Fe2+>Pb2+and SO42->PO43->NO3->CO32->Cl->HCO3-. The results showed that water resources of the area is alkaline in nature and SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+ were the major contributing ions to the dissolved solids. Hydro-geochemical data suggest that weathering of rock forming minerals, agricultural runoff, anthropogenic and waste disposal sources are the major factors affecting water resources of the study area. Total hardness (TH) analysis revealed that the water is moderately hard to very hard in nature. The study also revealed that the water samples are within prescribed limit of mg/l by WHO for drinking purpose. Piper diagram for the study area showed that there is a mixture of three types of water. These are: Ca-Mg-SO4, Na-K-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. The calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Kelley’s ratio (KR) and sodium percentage (Na %) suggest that the water is suitable for irrigation. However, magnesium ratio (MR) suggests that of all the 24 points, only three locations are suitable for irrigation. The concentrations of Fe, Pb, CO32- and Cu exceeded the WHO permissible limit (0.3, 0.05, 0.1 and 1.3) mg/l in some water samples. The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) suggest that both ground and surface water were fresh water type (<1000) mg/.

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Keywords
Hydro-geochemical; Irrigation; Major ions; Minna metropolis, water quality