A Design Mix Procedure and Durability Evaluation of Ggbfs & Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete
A Design Mix Procedure and Durability Evaluation of Ggbfs & Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete
|© 2022 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2022|
|Authors : B. S. Pruthviraj, Shrishail B Anadinni
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I11P219|
How to Cite?
B. S. Pruthviraj, Shrishail B Anadinni, "A Design Mix Procedure and Durability Evaluation of Ggbfs & Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 178-186, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I11P219
In this research paper, a clear effort has been made to develop a step-by-step design mix procedure for GPC (Geo-Polymer Concrete) using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash with a 50:50 ratio replacing cement completely with alkaline solution ratio kept at 1:2.1 with a molarity of 8M. Compression and tensile strength for 7 and 28 days for M40 GPC were recorded high as46.29Mpa and 4.88Mpa for 7 days and 56.46Mpa and 5.08Mpa for 28 days. For durability evaluation, M20 and M40 grades were chosen, and specimens were exposed to5% sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and ammonium sulphate solutions for 28 days. Test specimens of 150mm cubes were cast and cured at ambient temperature for a period of 28 days. The loss in compressive strength for a 5% acidic attack in M40 GPC for 28 days was 12.92% and 31.81% for M20 GPC, respectively, making M40 superior to M20 grade. The loss in compressive strength for a 5% sulphate attack in M40 GPC for 28 days was 3.29% and 2.86% for M20 GPC. Similarly, the loss in compressive strength for a 5% chloride attack in M40 GPC for 28 days was 2.07% and 1.37% for M20 GPC, respectively.
Design mix, Durability assessment, Fly ash, GGBFS, Geo-polymer concrete.
 Ahmed, Hemn, Mahmood, Lavan, Muhammad, Muhammad, Faraj, Rabar, Qaidi, Shaker, Hamah Sor, Nadhim, Mohammed, Ahmed and Mohammed, Azad, “Geopolymer Concrete as a Cleaner Construction Material: An Overview on Materials and Structural Performances,” Cleaner Materials, vol. 5, pp. 100111, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clema.2022.100111
 Manvendra Verma, Nirendra Dev, Ibadur Rahman, Mayank Nigam, Mohd. Ahmed and Javed Mallick, “Geopolymer Concrete: A Material for Sustainable Development in Indian Construction Industries,” Natural Resources Conservation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-24, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12040514
 Imtiaz, Lahiba, Rehman, Sardar, Memon, Shazim, Khan, Muhammad and Faisal, Arbab, “A Review of Recent Developments and Advances in Eco-Friendly Geopolymer Concrete,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 7838, 2020. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217838
 Ganesh, Chithambar and Muthukannan, Muthiah, “A Review of Recent Developments in Geopolymer Concrete,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 696-699, 2018. Crossref, https://doi.org/14419/ijet.v7i4.5.25061
 Zhong Xu, Zhenpu Huang, Changjiang Liu, Xiaowei Deng, David Hui and Shujin Deng, from the Journal Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 158-172, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1515/rams-2021-0021
 Parathi S, Nagarajan P and Pallikkara S.A, “Ecofriendly Geopolymer Concrete: A Comprehensive Review,” Clean Tech Environ Policy, vol. 23, pp. 1701-1713, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-021-02085-0
 Peiliang Cong and Yaqian Cheng, “Advances in Geopolymer Materials: A Comprehensive Review,” Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 283-314, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2021.03.004
 Ning Li, Caijun Shi, Zuhua Zhang, Hao Wang and Yiwei Liu, “A Review on Mixture Design Methods for Geopolymer Concrete,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 178, pp. 107490, 2019. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107490
 Albitar M, Visintin P, Ali M.S.M and Dreehsler M, “Assessing Behaviour of Fresh and Hardened Geopolymer Concrete Mixed With Class-F Fly Ash,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. e1445, 2015. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-014-1254-z
 Montes C, Gomez S.A, Khadka N and Allouche, E.N., “Statistical Software to Improve the Accuracy of Geopolymer Concrete Mix Design and Proportioning,” World of Coal Ash Conference, Lexington, pp. 22-25, 2013.
 Nabila Shehata, O.A. Mohamed, Enas Taha Sayed, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem and A.G. Olabi, “Geopolymer Concrete as Green Building Materials: Recent Applications, Sustainable Development and Circular Economy Potentials,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 836, pp. 155577, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155577
 Y.H. Mugahed Amran, Rayed Alyousef, Hisham Alabduljabbar and Mohamed El-Zeadani, “Clean Production And Properties of Geopolymer Concrete, A Review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 251, pp. 119679, 2020. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119679
 Luan, Chenchen, Shi, Xiaoshuang, Zhang, Kuanyu, Utashev, Nodir, Yang, Fuhua, Dai, Jinxin and Wang, Qingyuan, “A Mix Design Method of Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete Based on Factors Analysis,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 272, pp. 121612, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121612
 Vemundla Ramesh and Koniki Srikanth, “Mechanical Properties and Mix Design of Geopolymer Concrete – A Review,” 2nd International Conference on Design and Manufacturing Aspects for Sustainable Energy, vol. 184, no. 6, pp. 1-5, 2020. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202018401091
 Hake, Sandeep, Awsarmal, Prashant and Damgir, R, “Durability Study on Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete for Acidic Environment,” Global Journal of Material Science and Engineering, pp. 13-18, 2019. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.37516/global.j.mater.sci.eng.2019.0076
 Rashidian-Dezfouli, Hassan, “Re: Is Cooling of Alkaline Activator for 24 Hours (For Alkali-Activated Binders) Scientifically Important?,” 2019.
 Ramachandran, Anuradha, Venkataraman, Sreevidya, Venkatasubramani, R. and Rangan B, “Modified Guidelines for Geopolymer Concrete Mix Design Using Indian Standard,” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 353-364, 2012.
 Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri, Kamarudin, H, Binhussain, Mohammed, Nizar, Khairul, Razak, Rafiza and Yahya, Zarina, “Comparison of Geopolymer Fly Ash and Ordinary Portland Cement to the Strength of Concrete,” Advanced Science Letters, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3592-3595, 2013. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2013.5187
 Patankar, Subhash, “Mix Design of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete,” SEC-14, Biannual ConferenceAt: IIT, Delhi, 2014. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2187-6_123
 M.W. Ferdous, O. Kayali and A. Khennane, “A Detailed Procedure of Mix Design for Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures,” International Institute for FRP in Construction, pp. 1-6, 2013.
 Ganesan Lavanya and Josephraj Jegan, “Durability Study on High Calcium Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Advances in Materials Sciences and Engineering,” Hindawi Publishing Corporation, pp. 731056, 2015. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/731056
 M. Vaishnavi and M. K. Rao, "Durability of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete," International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 872-876, 2014. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV3IS080784
 Jyotirmoy Mishra, Shaswat Kumar Das, Saurabh Kumar Singh and Syed Mohammed Mustakim, "Development of Geopolymer Concrete for the Protection of Environment: A Greener Alternative to Cement," SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 40-46, 2019. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23488352/IJCE-V6I3P106
 Chandani Tennakoon, Ahmad Shayan, Jay G Sanjayan and Aimin Xu, “Chloride Ingress and Steel Corrosion in Geopolymer Concrete Based on Long Term Tests,” Materials & Design, vol. 116, pp. 287-299, 2017. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.12.030
 Huang Ji Zhuang, Hai Yan Zhang and Hao Xu, “Resistance of Geopolymer Mortar to Acid and Chloride Attacks,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 210, pp. 126-131, 2017. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.11.057
 Shanmuganathan.N, Akbar Basha.S, Sheikibrahim.K and Mohammed Fahad A.S, "Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (Ggbs or Ggbfs) and Fly Ash (Fa) in Concrete – A Study Report," SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 13-17, 2018. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23488352/IJCE-V5I3P103
 T. Bakharev, J. G. Sanjayan and Y.-B Cheng, "Sulfate Attack on Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 211-216, 2002. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00659-7
 Ghanem, Gouda, Yehia, Sameh, Mohamed, Nehal and Helmy, Mohamed. "Effect of Sulphate Attack on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete," International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 63-70, 2022.
 Bondar D, Lynsdale C.J, Milestone N.B, et al., “Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans,” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 9, pp. 145-158, 2015. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40069-014-0093-0
 Kumar R, Verma M and Dev N, “Investigation on the Effect of Seawater Condition, Sulphate Attack, Acid Attack, Freeze–Thaw Condition, and Wetting–Drying on the Geopolymer Concrete,” Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Trans Civil Engineering, vol. 46, pp. 2823-2853, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40996-021-00767-9
 Bhutta, Aamer, Hussin, M, Ariffin, Mohd Azreen and Tahir, Mahmood, “Sulphate Resistance of Geopolymer Concrete Prepared from Blended Waste Fuel Ash,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 04014080, 2014. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001030
 “IS 10262, Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Proportioning,” Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2019.
 T. Bakharev, “Resistance of Geopolymer Materials to Acid Attack,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 658-670, 2005. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.06.005
 J J Ekaputri, H A Lie, C Fujiyama, M Shovitri, N H Alami and D H E Setiamarga, “The Effect of Alkali Concentration on Chloride Penetration in Geopolymer Concrete,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 615, pp. 012114, 2019. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/615/1/012114