A Broadband Equivalent Model of On-Chip Spiral Inductors using Differential Evolution Algorithm

## A Broadband Equivalent Model of On-Chip Spiral Inductors using Differential Evolution Algorithm

Volume-70 Issue-2
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : Vrinda. K, Dhanesh G. Kurup
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I2P228

How to Cite?

Vrinda. K, Dhanesh G. Kurup, "A Broadband Equivalent Model of On-Chip Spiral Inductors using Differential Evolution Algorithm," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 249-253, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I2P228

Abstract
The article presents robust broadband lumped equivalent model for an on-chip spiral inductor which is an integral part of RF front end blocks. The frequency-independent model generation involves two steps- rational function modelling from two-port Scattering (S) parameters of the spiral inductor and a circuit extraction technique. The paper proposes a population-based Differential Evolution Algorithm for the rational function modelling of the inductor. Applying the Differential Evolution Algorithm ensures a more generalized and flexible model consisting of poles and residues. The nature of the poles and residues is determined by introducing a random floating-point vector, Sk, and is a unique contribution of this work. The proposed algorithm also eliminates the initial poles calculation step in the conventional modelling algorithms and makes the performance insensitive to the initial poles. Further, the paper illustrates an efficient circuit extraction methodology for generating a SPICE-compatible equivalent circuit from the identified poles and residues of the inductor. The equivalent model obtained in this work accurately predicts the initial increase and the eventual decrease in the series resistance due to skin/proximity effects and substrate coupling, respectively.

Keywords
Differential Evolution Algorithm, Circuit, Spiral inductor, Rational function model, Skin/ proximity effect.

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