Effect of Temperature on the Self-Healing Efficiency of Bacteria and on that of Fly Ash in Concrete

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
  
© 2022 by IJETT Journal
Volume-70 Issue-4
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : Millicent W. Njau, John Mwero, Zachary Abiero-Gariy, Viviene Matiru
  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I4P215

MLA 

MLA Style: Millicent W. Njau, et al.  "Effect of Temperature on the Self-Healing Efficiency of Bacteria and on that of Fly Ash in Concrete." International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 4, Apr. 2022, pp. 174-187. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I4P215

APA Style: Millicent W. Njau, John Mwero, Zachary Abiero-Gariy, Viviene Matiru. (2022). Effect of Temperature on the Self-Healing Efficiency of Bacteria and on that of Fly Ash in Concrete. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 70(4), 174-187. https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I4P215

Abstract
Self-healing is a technique used to repair cracks in concrete autogenously or autonomously. Several investigations have been conducted to improve the self-healing efficiency, which will allow for the application of the technique on a larger scale by simulating real conditions. The study aims to investigate the effect of temperature on the efficiency of crack healing. Autonomous self-healing was induced by incorporating Bacillus thuringiensis to the concrete mix as a microbial self-healing agent and calcium nitrate as its nutrient source. Autogenous self-healing concrete was developed using fly ash as a partial cement substitute. The mechanical properties of both concrete mixes were studied, and a comparison was made with those of the control concrete mix. The crack surface was examined for concrete samples cured at different temperatures (25oC to 45oC at intervals of 5oC) to assess the self-healing process. According to the findings, the compressive strength of fly ash concrete samples was improved at 90 days by 3.34%, while the split tensile strength was improved from as early as 7 days by 1.88% to 3.53% at 90 days. The inclusion of the bacteria and its nutrient source improved the split tensile strength of concrete but reduced its compressive strength at 90 days. Both self-healing techniques were accelerated when the concrete specimens were cured at slightly elevated temperatures. The optimum temperature for efficient bacterial self-healing was found to be 40oC. The results show that at 45oC, the healing rates were between 25%-45%, while at 25oC, the healing rates were between 10-30% for concrete samples containing fly ash. For the samples containing the microbial healing agent, a crack 0.6mm wide was completely healed in 18 days when the concrete specimen was cured at 40oC, while larger cracks up to 0.8mm showed up to 40% crack closure in 28 days when exposed to the bacteria's optimum temperature for calcite precipitation. In conclusion, the self-healing efficiency is increased at slightly elevated temperatures. The results obtained for microbial self-healing suggest that optimal conditions are required for the practical application of this technique; thus, it can be adopted in areas where the atmospheric conditions are close to optimum.

Keywords
Bacillus thuringiensis, Class C fly ash, Compressive strength, Self-healing index, Split tensile strength.

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