Modelling Thermoelectric Generators to Harvest the Low-Temperature Changes in Electronic Devices

Modelling Thermoelectric Generators to Harvest the Low-Temperature Changes in Electronic Devices

© 2022 by IJETT Journal
Volume-70 Issue-9
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : Pavani Lakshmi Alluri, Daisy Rani Alli, D.V. Rama Koti Reddy
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I9P210

How to Cite?

Pavani Lakshmi Alluri, Daisy Rani Alli, D.V. Rama Koti Reddy, "Modelling Thermoelectric Generators to Harvest the Low-Temperature Changes in Electronic Devices," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 105-110, 2022. Crossref,

As the energy demand grows, people are devising new ways to generate energy. New energy sources will be required to close the energy gap. Distributed energy generation is gaining popularity because of its several benefits, including adaptability, reliability, and adaptability, as well as the fact that it has low transmission losses. The thermoelectric generator is a distributed power source that produces electricity using thermal energy (TEG). The conversion efficiency is measured in terms that are unaffected by module geometry. This means that the thermoelectric generator design is only governed by matching the load resistance to maximise efficiency or power production.
On the other hand, the thermoelectric module's power output and conversion efficiency are determined by the thermoelement length, contact properties, and operational temperature difference. The optimal length for maximum power production differs from that for maximum conversion efficiency. The ideal length of a thermoelement for power generation appears to be a compromise between the need for maximal power output and conversion efficiency. This paper aims to give the calculations and graphs required to determine the best module configuration.

Thermal Energy, Thermoelectric generator design, Seebeck effect, COMS.

[1] Rowe DM, “CRC Handbook of Thermoelectric,” CRC press, Boca Raton, 1995.
[2] Rowe DM and Bhandari CM, “Modern Thermoelectrics, Prentice Hall,” Upper Saddle River, 1983.
[3] Zevenhoven R and Beyene A, “The Relative Contribution of Waste Heat from Power Plants to Global Warming,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 3754–3762, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/
[4] Moh'd AA‐N, Tashtoush BM and Jaradat AA, “Modeling and Simulation of Thermoelectric Device Working as a Heat Pump and an Electric Generator under Mediterranean Climate,” Energy, vol. 90, pp. 1239–1250, 2015.
[5] Mamur H and Ahiska R, “A Review: Thermoelectric Generators in Renewable Energy,” International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 128-136, 2014.
[6] Ioffe A, Kaye J and Welsh JA, “Direct Conversion of Heat to Electricity,” John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1960.
[7] Sutton GW, “Direct Energy Conversion,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966.
[8] Decher R, “Direct Energy Conversion: Fundamentals of Electric Power Production,” Oxford University Press on Demand, Oxford, 1997.
[9] Riffat SB and Ma X, “Thermoelectrics: A Review of Present and Potential Applications,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 913–935, 2003. DOI: 10.1016/S1359‐4311(03)00012‐7
[10] Dziurdzia P, “Modeling and Simulation of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Processes,” In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, 2011.
[11] Thomas JP, Qidwai MA and Kellogg JC, “Energy Scavenging for Small‐Scale Unmanned Systems,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 1494–1509, 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.12.084
[12] Meng F, Chen L, and Sun F, “A Numerical Model and Comparative Investigation of a Thermoelectric Generator with Multi‐ Irreversibilities,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 3513–3522, 2011. DOI:
[13] Ebling D, et al., “Module Geometry and Contact Resistance of Thermoelectric Generators Analyzed by Multiphysics Simulation,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1376–1380, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/s11664‐010‐1331‐0
[14] Priya S and Inman DJ, “Energy Harvesting Technologies,” Springer, New York, vol. 21, 2009.
[15] Lovell M. C, Avery A. J, Vernon M. W, “Physical Properties of Materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,” University Press, Cambridge, 1981.
[16] Luo J, Chen Y, Tang K, Luo J, “Remote Monitoring Information System and its Applications Based on the Internet of Things,” BioMedical Information Engineering, FBIE, International Conference on Future, pp.482-485, 2009.
[17] Mateu L, Codrea C, Lucas N, Pollak M, Spies P, “Human Body Energy Harvesting Thermogenerator for Sensing Applications,” Proc. of the International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications SensorComm, October, Valencia, Spain, pp. 366- 372, 2007.
[18] McNaughton A. G, “Commercially Available Generators,” CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, pp. 659-469, 1995.
[19] Mitrani D., Tome J. A., Salazar J., Turo A., Garcia M. J., Chavez A, “Methodology for Extracting Thermoelectric Module Parameters,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1548-1552, 2005.
[20] Paradiso J. A., Starner T, “Energy Scavenging for Mobile and Wireless Electronics,” Pervasive Computing, IEEE, pp. 18-27, 2005.
[21] Penn A, “Small Electrical Power Sources,” Phys. Technol, vol. 5, pp. 114, 1974.
[22] Priya S., Inman D. J, “Energy Harvesting Technologies,” Springer, 2009.
[23] Redstall R. M., Studd R, “Reliability of Peltier Coolers in Fiber-Optic Laser Packages,” CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, pp. 641-645, 1995.
[24] Salerno D, “Ultralow Voltage Energy Harvester Uses Thermoeletric Generator for Battery-free Wireless Sensors,” LT Journal, pp. 1-11, 2010.
[25] Seifert W, Ueltzen M, Strumpel C, Heiliger W, Muller E, “One-Dimensional Modeling of a Peltier Element,” Proc. of the 20th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, 2001.
[26] Uemura K, “Laboratory Equipment,” CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, CRC Press, pp. 647-655, 1995.
[27] Wey T, “On the Behavioral Modeling of a Thermoelectric Cooler and Mechanical Assembly,” IEEE North-East Workshop on Circuit and Systems, pp. 277-280, 2006.