A Cluster Based Directional Forwarding Routing Protocol for Bandwidth Constrained Networks

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
  
© 2022 by IJETT Journal
Volume-70 Issue-9
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : T. O. Kebeng, S. M. Sheikh, M. Kgwadi
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I9P216

How to Cite?

T. O. Kebeng, S. M. Sheikh, M. Kgwadi, "A Cluster Based Directional Forwarding Routing Protocol for Bandwidth Constrained Networks," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 155-166, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I9P216

Abstract
Routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks use control messages to learn the network, discover paths, and keep up with network changes. For bandwidth-limited networks, too many control messages severely impact data delivery performance. Therefore, reducing the number and broadcast scope of control messages is important. It can be done using different broadcast techniques, Location Services (GPS), data aggregation, and directional antennas. Options like GPS or directional antennas are costly. Therefore, this paper aims to present an alternative protocol that directs or limits route request messages along some path between the source and destination without using GPS or complex antennas. The protocol modifies Ad-hoc Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Still, it is called Cluster Based AODV (CLUBAA), and this paper has evaluated only against AODV at different route-discovery-request rates and network sizes. The novelty of the protocol is that it uses DSR-like pathfinding at a cluster level, not a node level. Simulations were carried out on Network Simulator 3, and it was found that for some configurations, CLUBAA uses fewer control messages; the difference is statistically significant. CLUBAA also had a better data delivery ratio, above 40%, compared to below 30% for AODV at 150 nodes. One of the negatives is that CLUBAA failed to find routes successfully more often than AODV did, for example, failing 45% of route discoveries at a request rate of 2 route discovery requests/second.

Keywords
Ad-hoc Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Cluster, Cluster Based AODV (CLUBAA), Directional Routing, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO).

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