Lithium Recovery from Water Resources by Membrane and Adsorption Methods
Lithium Recovery from Water Resources by Membrane and Adsorption Methods
|© 2022 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2022|
|Authors : Bakhodir Abdullayev, Ilkham Usmanov, Murodjon Samadiy, Tianlong Deng
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I9P231|
How to Cite?
Bakhodir Abdullayev, Ilkham Usmanov, Murodjon Samadiy, Tianlong Deng, "Lithium Recovery from Water Resources by Membrane and Adsorption Methods " International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 319-329, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I9P231
Due to the rapid development of portable electronic devices, hybrid and electric vehicles, there is an increasing demand for Lithium and its compounds in the form of the carbonate, lithium hydroxide, and mineral concentrates, which account for 80% of the world market. Lithium demand is projected to rise by 60% in the coming years, driven by electric vehicles. This requires efficient and fast methods of exploration and discovery of new deposits and cost-effective highresolution exploration technologies. Hyperspectral imaging allows you to quickly map minerals and obtain data on the amount and spatial arrangement of ore and fossil minerals. The reserves of lithium resources in salt lake water, sea, and geothermal water are 70-80% of the total, which are excellent raw materials for lithium extraction. In this regard, more and more research is aimed at being involved in the industrial production of Lithium from water resources. An alternative method to increase lithium production is the recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium concentrations in geothermal waters are deficient compared to brines, and not all methods are acceptable. The methods used to extract Lithium from liquid media include evaporation, solvent extraction, membrane usage, nanofiltration, and adsorption. The most effective and promising use of selective adsorbents with high functionality, low energy consumption, and environmental safety. The most studied are ionic sieves based on manganese LMO. More chemically stable lithium-ion sieves are based on titanium LTO.
Lithium recovery, Adsorption, ion exchange, Geothermal water, Bittern.
 BogaleTadesse, FideleMakuei, Boris Albijanic, Laurence Dyer, “The Beneficiation of Lithium Minerals from Hard Rock Ores: A Review,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 131, pp. 170, 2019.
 WilliamA. Hart, O. F. Beumel, Thomas P. Whaley, “The Chemistry of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium,” Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry 1st Ed., 1973.
 Choubey P. K, Kim M, Srivastava R. R, Lee J, Lee J.Y, “Advance Review on the Exploitation of the Prominent Energy-Storage Element: Lithium, Part I: From Mineral and Brine Resources,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 89, pp. 119, 2016.
 Xianhui Li, Yinghui Mo, Weihua Qing, Senlin Shao, Chuyang Y. Tang, Jianxin Li, “Membrane-Based Technologies for Lithium Recovery from Water Lithium Resources: A Review,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 591, pp. 117317, 2019.
 Samadiy Murodjon, Xiaoping Yu, Mingli Li, Ji Duo, Tianlong Deng, “Lithium Recovery from Brines Including Seawater, Salt Lake Brine, Underground Water and Geothermal Water,” Thermodynamics and Energy Engineering: Intech Open, vol. 10, pp. 187, 2020.
 Glasstone, A. Sesonske, “Nuclear Reactor Engineering,” 3-rd ed., Delhi, India: CBS Publishers Distributors,1986.
 Xin Sun, Han Hao, Fuquan Zhao, Zongwei Liu, “Tracing Global Lithium Flow: A Trade-Linked Material Flow Analysis,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 124, pp. 50, 2017.
 Paripurnanda Loganathan, Gayathri Naidu, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran, “Mining Valuable Minerals from Seawater: A Critical Review,” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 37, 2017.
 Stephen E. Kesler, Paul W. Gruber, Pablo A. Medina, Gregory A. Keoleian, Mark P. Everson, Timothy J. Wallington, “Global Lithium Resources: Relative Importance of Pegmatite, Brine and Other Deposits,” Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 48, pp. 55, 2012.
 Suzette M. Kimball. U.S, “Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries,” Reston,Virginia, 2016.
 Jaskula B.W, Lithium, “Minerals Yearbook,” U.S. Geological Survey, vol. 44, pp. 1-44, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/ lithium/myb1-2014-lithi.pdf
 MurodjonSamadiy, Tianlong Deng, “Lithium Recovery from Water Resources by Ion Exchange and Sorption Method,” Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, vol. 43, pp. 406, 2021.
 G.C. Guo, D. Wang, X.L. Wei, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, W.M. Lau, L.M. Liu, “First-Principles Study of Phosphorene and Grapheme Heterostructure as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li Batteries,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 5002, 2015.
 Zhi-Yong Ji, Feng-Juan Yang, Ying-Ying Zhao, Jie Liu, Ni Wang, Jun-Sheng Yuan, “Preparation of Titanium-Base Lithium Ionic Sieve with Sodiumpersulfate as Eluent and its Performance,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 328, pp. 768, 2017.
 T. Dursun, C. Soutis, “Recent Developments in Advanced Aircraft Aluminium Alloys,” Mater. Des., vol. 56, pp. 862, 2014.
 L. Wang, C.G. Meng, M. Han, W. Ma, “Lithium Uptake in Fixed-pH Solution by Ion Sieves,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, vol. 325, pp. 31, 2008.
 U.S. Geological Survey, “Mineral Commodity Summaries,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/lithium/mcs-2018-lithi.pdf.
 Ciez R. E, Whitacre J. F, “Examining Different Recycling Processes for Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Nature Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 148, 2019.
 I. Kunasz, Lithium Resources, In: J.E.Kogel, et al., Eds., “Industrial Minerals and Rocks - Commodities, Markets, and Uses,” 7 th Edition Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME), 2006.
 Paranthaman M. P, Li L, Luo J, Hoke T, Ucar H, Moyer B. A, Harrison S, “Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium–Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 51, no. 22, pp. 13481, 2017.
 Jian Feng Song, Long D. Nghiem, Xue-Mei Lia, Tao He, “Lithium Extraction from Chinese Salt-Lake Brines: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Outlook,” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 593, 2017.
 F.L. Tabarés, “Lithium Technology, Performance and Safety,” Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, 2013.
 Roskill Information Services Ltd., The Economics of Lithium 11th ed., London, United Kingdom, Roskill Information Services Ltd., vol. 324, 2009.
 Camille Grosjean, Pamela Herrera Miranda, Marion Perrin, Philippe Poggi, “Assessment of World Lithium Resources and Consequences of Their Geographic Distribution on the Expected Development of the Electric Vehicle Industry,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1735, 2012.
 Mark G. Aylmore, Kelly Merigot, ZakariaQuadir, William D.A. Rickard, Noreen J. Evans, Bradley J. McDonald, EnejCatovic, Peter Spitalny, “Applications of Advanced Analytical and Mass Spectrometry Techniques to the Characterisation of Micaceous Lithium-Bearing Ores,” Minerals Engineering, vol. 116, pp. 182, 2018.
 Kruse F.A, Boardman J.W, Huntington J.F, “Comparison of Airborne Hyperspectral Data and EO-1 Hyperion for Mineral Mapping,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience Remote Sensing, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1388, 2003.
 Rene Booysen, Sandra Lorenz, Samuel T. Thiele, Warrick C. Fuchsloch, Timothy Marais, Paul A.M. Nex, Richard Gloaguen, “Accurate Hyperspectral Imaging of Mineralised Outcrops: An Example from Lithium-Bearing Pegmatites at Uis, Namibia,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 269, pp. 112790, 2022.
 Swapnil Anil Ugalmugale, ShaikhMudassirIrshad, Bhagyashri Vijay Sonawane, PratibhaGawande, "A Review & Studies on Design Parameter of Membrane Distillation Process for Water Treatment," SSRG International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2022. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23945370/IJCER-V9I1P101
 TizianoBoschetti, “A Revision of Lithium Minerals Thermodynamics: Possible Implications for Fluids Geochemistry and Geothermometry,” Geothermics, vol. 98, pp. 102286, 2022.
 Laurence Kavanagh, Jerome Keohane, Guiomar Garcia Cabellos, Andrew Lloyd, John Cleary, “Global Lithium Sources Industrial use and Future in the Electric Vehicle Industry: A Review,” Resources, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 57, 2018.
 DmytroYelatontsev, Anatoliy Mukhachev, “Processing of Lithium Ores: Industrial Technologies and Case Studies – A Review,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 201, pp. 105578, 2021.
 Luis A. Gil-Alana, Manuel Monge, “Lithium: Production and Estimated Consumption, Evidence of Persistence,” Resources Policy, vol. 60, pp. 198, 2019.
 National Minerals Information Center, Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://pubs.usgs.gov/periodicals/mcs2020/mcs2020.pdf
 Jinliang Wang, Huazhou Hu, Kaiqi Wu, “Extraction of Lithium, Rubidium and Cesium from Lithium Porcelain Stone,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 191, pp. 105233, 2020.
 BNEF, Electric Vehicle Outlook, Carles L, “Modelling Long-Term Global Lithium Stocks and Flows,” Master Thesis, Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://about.bnef. com/electric-vehicleoutlook/#toc-viewreport
 Roskill, Lithium Outlook to 2028-Tables, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://roskill. com/market-reports/.
 Ange-Lionel Toba, Ruby Thuy Nguyen, Carson Cole, Ghanashyam Neupane, Mariappan Parans Paranthaman, “U.S. Lithium Resources from Geothermal and Extraction Feasibility,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 169, pp. 105514, 2021.
 Victoria Flexer, Celso Fernando Baspineiro, Claudia Inés Galli, “Lithium Recovery from Brines: A Vital Raw Material for Green Energies with a Potential Environmental Impact in its Mining and Processing,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 639, pp. 1188, 2018.
 Gunther Martin, Lars Rentsch, Michael Höck, Martin Bertau, “Lithium Market Research-Global Supply, Future Demand and Price Development,” Energy Storage Materials, vol. 6, pp. 171, 2017.
 Melleton J, Gloaguen E, Frei D, Novák M, Breiter K, “How are the Emplacement of Rare-Element Pegmatites, Regional Metamorphism and Magmatism Interrelated in the Moldanubian Domain of the Variscan Bohemian Massif Czech Republic,” Can Mineral, vol. 50, pp. 1751, 2012.
 Neace E.R, Nance R.D, Murphy J.B, Lancaster P.J, Shail R.K, “Zircon La-ICPMS Geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England,” Tectonophysics, vol. 681, pp. 332, 2016.
 Ilickovic T, Schuster R, Mali H, Petrakakis K, Schedl A, “Spodumenebearingpegmatites in the Austroalpine unit (Eastern Alps): Distribution and New Geochronologiocal Data,” Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2017-7235, 2017.
 Van Lichtervelde M, Grand'Homme A, de Saint-Blanquat M, Olivier P, Gerdes A, Paquette J.L, Melgarejo J.C, Druguet E, Alfonso P, “U-Pb Geo Chronology Onzircon and Columbite-Group Minerals of the Cap de Creuspegmatites,” Spain, Mineral, Petrol, vol. 111, pp. 1, 2017.
 Melleton J, Gloaguen E, Frei D, Lima A, “U-Pb Dating of Columbite–Tantalitefrom Variscan Rare- Elements Granites and Pegmatites,” Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 75, pp. 1452, 2011.
 Kuusela J, Ahtola T, Koistinen E, Seppänen H, Hatakka T, Lohva J, “Report of Investigations on the Rapasaaret Lithium Pegmatite Deposit in Kaustinene-Kokkola,Western Finland,” GTK Southern Finland Office, vol. 42, no. 65, 2011.
 Zhang R, Lehmann B, Seltmann R, Sun W, Li C, “Cassiterite U-Pb Geochronology Constrains Magmatic-Hydrothermal Evolutionin Complex Evolved Granite Systems: The Classic Erzgebirge Tin Province SaxonyandBohemia,” Geology, vol. 45, pp. 1096, 2017.
 Basudev Swain, “Recovery and Recycling of Lithium: A Review,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 172, pp. 388, 2017.
 JeonWoong An, Dong Jun Kang, KhuyenThi Tran, Myong Jun Kim, Tuti Lim, Tam Tran, “Recovery of Lithium from Uyunisalar Brine,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 64, pp. 117-118, 2012.
 European Commission, “Critical Raw Materials Resilience: Charting a Path towards Greater Security and Sustainability,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030- 40268-6_9.
 Pramanik B. K, Asif M. B, Kentish S, Nghiem L. D, Hai F. I, “Lithium Enrichment from a Simulated Salt Lake Brine using an Integrated Nanofiltration-Membrane Distillation Process,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 103395, 2019.
 Sang Hyun Park, JiHoon Kim, Sun Ju Moon, Jun Tae Jung, Ho Hyun Wang, Aamer Ali, Cejna Anna Quist-Jensen, Francesca Macedonio, Enrico Drioli, Young Moo Lee, “Lithium Recovery from Artificial Brine using Energy-Efficient Membrane Distillation and Nanofiltration,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 598, pp. 117683, 2020.
 Ye Zhang, Li Wang,Wei Sun, Yuehua Hu, Honghu Tang, “Membrane Technologies for Li+ /Mg2+ Separation from Salt-Lake Brines and Seawater: A Comprehensive Review,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 7, 2019
 Andrea Schäfer, Anthony G Fane, T David Waite, “Nanofiltration: Principles and Applications,” Elsevier, 2005.
 Shu-Ying Sun, Li-Juan Cai, Xiao-Yao Nie, Xingfu Song, Jian-Guo Yu, “Separation of Magnesium and Lithium from Brine using a Desal Nanofiltration Membrane,” Journal of Water Process Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 210, 2015.
 Qiuyan Bi, Zhiqiang Zhang, Chenying Zhao, Zhenqi Tao, “Study on the Recovery of Lithium from High Mg2+/Li+ Ratio Brine by Nanofiltration,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1690, 2014.
 C.A. Quist-Jensen, F. Macedonio, E. Drioli, “Membrane Crystallization for Salts Recovery from Brine – An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis,” Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 57, pp. 7593, 2015.
 Pramanik B. K, Asif M. B, Roychand R, Shu L, Jegatheesan V, Bhuiyan M, Hai F. I, “Lithium Recovery from Salt-Lake Brine: Impact of Competing Cations, Pretreatment and Preconcentration,” Chemosphere, vol. 260, pp. 127623, 2020.
 Shuru Chen, Fang Dai, Mei Cai, “Opportunities and Challenges of High-Energy Lithium Metal Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications,” ACS Energy Letters, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 3140, 2020.
 S. Chen, J. Zheng, L.u. Yu, X. Ren, M.H. Engelhard, C. Niu, H. Lee, W.u. Xu, J. Xiao, J. Liu, J.-G. Zhang, “High-Efficiency Lithium Metal Batteries with Fire-Retardant Electrolytes,” Joule, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1548, 2018.
 W. Yao, S. Wu, L. Zhan, Y. Wang, “Two-Dimensional Porous Carbon-Coated Sandwich-Like Mesoporous Sno2/Graphene/Mesoporous Sno2 Nanosheets towards High-Rate and Long Cycle Life Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 361, pp. 329, 2019.
 Schulz A, Bakhru H, DeRosa D, Higashiya S, Rane-Fondacaro M, Haldar P, “Quantifying Lithium in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer and Beyond using Lithium- Nuclear Reaction Analysis Technique,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 360, pp. 129, 2017.
 Zhang L, Li L, Rui H, Shi D, Peng X, Ji L, Song X, “Lithium Recovery from Effluent of Spent Lithium Battery Recycling Process using Solvent Extraction,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 398, pp. 122840, 2020.
 X. Yu, X. Fan, Y. Guo, T. Deng, “Recovery of Lithium from Underground Brine by Multistage Centrifugal Extraction using TriIsobutyl Phosphate,” Seperation and Purification Technology, vol. 211, pp. 790, 2019.
 J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Li, Y. Ma, C. Li, S. Dai, “Hierarchicallyporous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 3D Architectures with Anchored Lattice-Expanded Lambda-Mno2 Nanodots as Freestanding Adsorbents for Superior Lithium Separation,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 59, pp. 13239, 2020.
 Wang H, Cui J, Li M, Guo Y, Deng T, Yu X, “Selective Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Water by EGDE Cross-Linked Spherical CTS/LMO,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 389, pp. 124410, 2020.
 D. Liu, S. Sun, J. Yu, “A New High-Efficiency Process for Lirecovery from Solutions Based on Limn2o4/Lambda-Mno2 Materials,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 377, pp. 119825, 2019.
 J. Jiang, K. Li, J. Mao, N, Jiang, J, Luo, G. Ding, Y. Li, F. Sun, B. Dai, Y. Li, “Sandwich-Like Prussian Blue/Graphene Oxide Composite Films as Ion-Sieves for Fast and Uniform Li Ionic Flux in Highly Stable Li Metal Batteries,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 385, pp. 123398, 2020.
 Saif H. M, Huertas R. M, Pawlowski S, Crespo J. G, Velizarov S, “Development of Highly Selective Composite Polymeric Membranes for Li+/Mg2+ Separation,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 620, pp. 118891, 2021.
 Liu G, Zhao Z, He L, “Highly Selective Lithium Recovery from High Mg/Li Ratio Brines,” Desalination, vol. 474, pp. 114185, 2020.
 Pramanik B. K, Nghiem L. D, Hai F. I, “Extraction of Strategically Important Elements from Brines: Constraints and Opportunities,” Water Research, vol. 168, pp. 115149, 2019.
 Guo Y, Ying Y, Mao Y, Peng X, Chen B, “Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 55, no. 48, pp. 15120, 2016.
 Palagonia M. S, Brogioli D, La Mantia F, “Lithium Recovery from Diluted Brine by Means of Electrochemical Ion Exchange in a Flow-Through-Electrodes Cell,” Desalination, vol. 475, pp. 114192, 2020.
 Cheng X.B, Hou T.Z, Zhang R, Peng H.J, Zhao C.Z, Huang J.Q, Zhang Q, “Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition Induced by Uniformly Distributed Lithium Ions for Efficient Lithium Metal Batteries,” Advanced Materials, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2888, 2016.
 Battistel A, Palagonia M. S, Brogioli D, La Mantia F, Trócoli R, “Electrochemical Methods for Lithium Recovery: A Comprehensive and Critical Review,” Advanced Materials, vol. 32, pp. 1905440, 2020.
 Xu X, Chen Y, Wan P, Gasem K, Wang K, He T, Adidharma H, Fan M, “Extraction of Lithium with Functionalized Lithium IonSieves,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 84, pp. 276, 2016.
 Wei S, Wei Y, Chen T, Liu C, Tang Y, “Porous Lithiumion Sieves Nanofibers: General Synthesis Strategy and Highly Selective Recovery of Lithium from Brine Water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 379, pp. 122407, 2019.
 BazrgarBajestani M, Moheb A, Masigol M, “Simultaneous Optimization of Adsorption Capacity and Stability of Hydrothermally Synthesized Spinel Ion-sieve Composite Adsorbents for Selective Removal of Lithium from Aqueous Solutions,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 58, pp. 12207, 2019.
 Snydacker D. H, I. Hegde V, Aykol M, Wolverton C, “Computational Discovery of Li-M-O Ion Exchange Materials for Lithium Extraction from Brines,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 30, pp. 6961, 2018.
 Weng D, Duan H, Hou Y, Huo J, Chen L, Zhang F, Wang J, “Introduction of Manganesebased Lithium-Ion Sieve- A Review,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 139, 2020.
 Kenta Ooi, Yoshitaka Miyai, ShunsakuKatoh, “Lithium-ion Sieve Property of λ;-type Manganese Oxide,” Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 561, 1987.
 Chitrakar, H. Kanoh, Y. Miyai, K. Ooi, “Recovery of Lithium from Seawater using Manganese Oxide Adsorbent (H1.6Mn1.6O4) Derived from Li1.6Mn1.6O4,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2054, 2001.
 Darul J, Nowicki W, Piszora P, “Unusual Compressional Behavior of Lithium–Manganese Oxides: A Case Study of Li4Mn5O12,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 33, pp. 17872, 2012.
 Moazeni M, Hajipour H, Askari M, Nusheh M, “Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes as Novel Lithium Adsorbents,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 61, pp. 70, 2015.
 Shi K, Luo M, Ying J, Zhen S, Xing Z, Chen R, “Extraction of Lithium from Single-Crystalline Lithium Manganese Oxide Nanotubes Using Ammonium Peroxodisulfate,” iScience, vol. 23, no. 11, 101768 (2020).
 Ding W, Zhang J, Liu Y, Guo Y, Deng T, Yu X, “Synthesis of Granulated H4Mn5O12/Chitosan with Improved Stability by a Novel Cross-Linking Strategy for Lithium Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 426, pp. 139, 2021.
 Gao J, Du Z, Zhao Q, Guo Y, Cheng F, “Enhanced Li+ Adsorption by Magnetically Recyclable Iron-Doped Lithium Manganese Oxide Ion-Sieve: Synthesis, Characterization, Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherm,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 13, pp. 228-240, 2021.
 Chen S, Chen Z, Wei Z, Hu J, Guo Y, Deng T, “Titanium-Based Ion Sieve with Enhanced Post-Separation Ability for High Performance Lithium Recovery from Geothermal Water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 410, pp. 128320, 2021.
 Taegong Ryu, Yuvaraj Haldorai, Arunkumar Rengaraj, Junho Shin, Hye-Jin Hong,Go-Woon Lee, Young-Kyu Han, Yun Suk Huh, Kang-Sup Chung, “Recovery of Lithium Ions from Seawater Using a Continuous Flow Adsorption Column Packed with Granulated Chitosan–Lithium Manganese Oxide,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 55, no. 26, pp. 7218, 2016.
 Hong H.J, Park I.S, Ryu T, Ryu J, Kim B.G, Chung K.S, “Granulation of Li1.33Mn1.67O4 (LMO) through the use of Cross-Linked Chitosan for the Effective Recovery of Li+ from Seawater,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 234, pp. 16, 2013.
 Grace M. Nisola, Lawrence A. Limjuco, Eleazer L. Vivas, Chosel P. Lawagon, Myoung Jun Park, Ho Kyong Shon, Neha Mittal, In Wook Nah, Hern Kim, Wook-Jin Chung, “Macroporous Flexible Polyvinyl Alcohol Lithium Adsorbent Foam Composite Prepared via Surfactant Blending and Cryo-Desiccation,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 280, pp. 536, 2015.
 Myoung Jun Park, Grace M. Nisola, Arnel B. Beltran, Rey Eliseo C. Torrejos, Jeong Gil Seo, Seong-Poong Lee, Hern Kim, Wook-Jin Chung, “Recyclable Composite Nanofiber Adsorbent for Li+ Recovery from Seawater Desalination Retentate,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 254, pp. 73, 2014.
 Jia Q, Wang J, Guo R, “Preparation and Characterization of Porous HMO/PAN Composite Adsorbent and its Adsorption– Desorption Properties in Brine,” Journal of Porous Materials, vol. 26, pp. 705, 2018.
 Zhu G, Wang P, Qi P, Gao C, “Adsorption and Desorption Properties of Li+ on PVC-H1.6Mn1.6O4 Lithium Ion-Sieve Membrane,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 235, pp. 340, 2014.
 Kaiyu Zhao, Bojia Tong, Xiaoping Yu, YafeiGuo, YingchunXie, Tianlong Deng, “Synthesis of Porous Fiber-Supported Lithium Ion-Sieve Adsorbent for Lithium Recovery from Geothermal Water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 430, pp. 131423, 2022.
 Xiao J.L, Sun S.Y, Song X, Li P, Yu J.G, “Lithium Ion Recovery from Brine using Granulated Polyacrylamide–MnO2 Ion-Sieve,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 279, pp. 659, 2015.
 Liu C, Tao B, Wang Z, Wang D, Guo R, Chen L, “Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Ion Sieves Embedded in a Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Cryogel for the Continuous Recovery of Lithium from Brine and Seawater,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 229, pp. 115984, 2020.
 Qiu Z, Wang M, Chen Y, Zhang T, Yang D, Qiu F, “Li4Mn5O12 Doped Cellulose Acetate Membrane with Low Mn Loss and High Stability for Enhancing Lithium Extraction from Seawater,” Desalination, vol. 506, pp. 115003, 2021.
 Han Y, Kim H, Park J, “Millimeter-Sized Spherical Ion-Sieve Foams with Hierarchical Pore Structure for Recovery of Lithium from Seawater,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 210, pp. 482, 2012.
 C. Yu, W. Liu, L. Yang, D, Wang, K, Wu, Z, Zhang, X. Wang, K. Yanagisawa, “Additives Affecting Properties of β-Li2TiO3 Pebbles in a Modified Indirect Wet Chemistry Process,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 480, pp. 310, 2016.
 H. Wang, H. Guo, R. Chen, Y, Zeng, M, Yang, Y, Gong, Y. Shi, D. Ye, Z. Liao, J. Qi, Q. Shi, T. Lu, “A Novel Mass Production Method for Li2TiO3 Tritium Breeder Ceramic Pebbles using Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) Assisted Granulation Method,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, pp. 4167, 2020.
 Arslan M, Acik G, Tasdelen M. A, “The Emerging Applications of Click Chemistry Reactions in the Modification of Industrial Polymers,” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 28, pp. 3806, 2019.
 Han Y, Kim S, Yu S, Myung N. V, Kim H, “Electrospun Hydrogen Manganese Oxide Nanofibers as Effective Adsorbents for Li+ Recovery from Seawater,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 81, pp. 115, 2019.
 Zante G, Boltoeva M, Masmoudi A, Barillon R, Trebouet D, “Highly Selective Transport of Lithium Across a Supported Liquid Membrane,” Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, vol. 236, pp. 109593, 2020.
 Lenin Sánchez, Elsa Arguello, Paola Quintana, Henry Acurio, “Design, Construction and Research of an Electric Unicycle with Rechargeable Flow Batteries,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 41-45, 2018. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V58P209
 Ju Xiao, Jiaxi Wang, Fei Yuan, Xiuyun Pan, MurodjonSamadiy, Tianlong Deng, YafeiGuo, “Volumetric Properties of the Binary Aqueous System Lithium Metaboratefrom 283.15 to 363.15 K and 101 k Pa: Experimental and Thermodynamic Model,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 366, no. 15, pp. 120174, 2022.
 Baali A, and Yahyaoui A, “Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Their Influence to Some Aquatic Species,” Biochemical Toxicology - Heavy Metals and Nanomaterials, IntechOpen, 2020.
 Cardoso-Fernandes J, Teodoro A. C, Lima A, Mielke C, Korting F, Roda-Robles E, Cauzid J, “Multi-Scale Approach using Remote Sensing Techniques for Lithium Pegmatite Exploration: First Results,” IGARSS IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2020.