Mechanical Performance of Laterite Soil Stabilized with Cement and Grewia Bicolour Bark Juice for Road Base Construction

Mechanical Performance of Laterite Soil Stabilized with Cement and Grewia Bicolour Bark Juice for Road Base Construction

© 2023 by IJETT Journal
Volume-71 Issue-2
Year of Publication : 2023
Author : Konice Yèyimè Déo-Gratias Aholoukpè, Christopher Kanali, Abiero Gariy, Humphrey Danso
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V71I2P217

How to Cite?

Konice Yèyimè Déo-Gratias Aholoukpè, Christopher Kanali, Abiero Gariy, Humphrey Danso, "Mechanical Performance of Laterite Soil Stabilized with Cement and Grewia Bicolour Bark Juice for Road Base Construction," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 137-142, 2023. Crossref,

This paper aims to investigate the potential of the Grewia bicolour bush as a natural stabiliser for road construction. This study evaluates the feasibility of using Grewia Bicolour Bark Juice (GBBJ) as a partial replacement for cement in the stabilization of laterite soil. The soil is mixed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) at different proportions of dry soil weight, ranging from 0 to 8%, with an interval of 2%. Californian Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) tests are performed on the soil-cement mixture to determine the optimum cement content. The UCS value of 6% cement content, with a strength of 2.1 MPa after 7 days of curing, meets the standards set by the Kenya Roads Design Manual Part III. Therefore, 6% cement content is chosen as the optimum. The soil is then treated with a cement-GBBJ mixture by partially replacing the optimum 6% cement content with GBBJ at increasing steps of 1%. The results show that, regarding the standards and the targeted strength, the optimum mix proportion is 4% cement plus 2% GBBJ. The corresponding CBR and UCS values are 130.7% and 1.98 MPa, respectively. The results of the tests provide promising prospects for an economical and sustainable way of soil strengthening.

Cement, Grewia bicolour bark juice, Stabilization, Laterite soil, Road base.

[1] M. S. Saleh, and A. B. Bala, “The Use of Gum Arabic as a Lateretic Soil Stabilizer,” Journal of Sciences and Multidisciplinary Research, vol. 2, 2010.
[2] B. Alabi and J. Fapohunda, “Effects of Increase in the Cost of Building Materials on the Delivery of Affordable Housing in South Africa,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 1772, 2021. Crossref,
[3] G. U. Fayomi et al., “Perspectives on Environmental CO2 Emission and Energy Factor in Cement Industry,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 331, no. 1, 2019. Crossref,
[4] “The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals an opportunity for Latin America and the Caribbean,” Goals, Targets and Global Indicators, United Nations Publication, 2018.
[5] R. Chen, L. Zhang, and M. Budhu, “Biopolymer Stabilization of Mine Tailings,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 139, no. 10, pp. 1802-1807, 2013. Crossref, (ASCE) GT.1943-5606.0000902
[6] I. Chang et al., “Effects of Xanthan Gum Biopolymer on Soil Strengthening,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 74, pp. 65-72, 2015. Crossref,
[7] A. Rimbarngaye, J. N. Mwero, and E. K. Ronoh, “Effect of Gum Arabic as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Durability Properties of Compressed Laterite Blocks,” Open Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 398-410, 2021. Crossref,
[8] website, 2015. [Online]. Available:
[9] Portland Cement Association, Soil-Cement Laboratory Handbook website, 1992. [Online]. Available:
[10] H. M. Jafer et al., “Assessing The Potential of a Waste Material for Cement Replacement and the Effect of its Fineness in Soft Soil Stabilisation,” International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 794-800, 2015.
[11] J. D. Akshatha, Ramakrishna Hegde, and K. E. Prakash, “Experimental Study of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Diospyros Malabarica,” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 27-32, 2022. Crossref,
[12] BS 1924-2:1990 Stabilized materials for civil engineering purposes, Methods of test for cement-stabilized and lime-stabilized materials (Withdrawn), 1990.
[13] H. F. Winterkorn, and E. C. Chandrasekharan, “Laterite Soils and Their Stabilization,” Highway Research Board Bulletin, no. 44, pp. 10- 29, 1951.
[14] AASHTO. 2001b, 21st Ed, Standard Specification for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
[15] Giora Rozmarin “ROAD DESIGN MANUAL - Part III - Materials & Pavement Design,” Republic of Kenya, 1987.
[16] G. M. Ayininuola, and S. P. Abidoye, “Soil Stabilization using Bitumen Emulsion and Cement Combination as Additive,” Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 66-74, 2018. Crossref,
[17] A. A. Nur et al., “Effect of Cement Stabilized Kaolin Subgrade on Strength Properties,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 842-845, 2014. Crossref,
[18] Majoie Ronelyam Mbakbaye, Erick Kiplangat Ronoh, and Isaac Fundi Sanewu, “Effects of Shea Nutshell Ash on Physical Properties of Lateritic Soil,” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1-6, 2021. Crossref,
[19] O. E. Oluwatuyi et al., “Ameliorating Effect of Milled Eggshell on Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soil for Highway Construction,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 9, p. e00191, 2018. Crossref,
[20] W. W. Bandara, W. K. Mampearachchi, and K. H. S. M. Sampath, “Cement Stabilized Soil as a Road Base Material for Use in Sri Lankan Roads,” Engineer: Journal of the Institution of Engineers, vol. 50, no. 21, pp. 1-9, 2017. Crossref,
[21] B. D. Oluyemi, and Ayibiowu, “Effect of Cement on Asphalt - Emulsion Stabilised Lateritic Soils,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 159-172, 2016.
[22] Ismaël Dabakuyo, Raphael N. Mutuku, and Richard O. Onchiri, “Effect of Sugarcane Molasses on the Physical Properties of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Stabilized Laterite Soil,” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1-12, 2021. Crossref,
[23] K. J. Osinubi, “Influence of Compactive Efforts on Lime- Slag Treated Tropical Black Clay,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 175-181, 2006. Crossref,
[24] R. Ferreira De Souza et al., “Carbonate-Silicate Ratio for Soil Correction and Influence on Nutrition, Biomass Production and Quality of Palisade Grass,” Animal Science and Pastures, vol. 68, no. 5, 2011. Crossref,
[25] V. Mohanalakshmi et al., “Geotechnical Properties of Soil Stabilized with Wollastonite,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, 2016. Crossref,
[26] O. Agashua, Lucia, and S. Ogbiye, “Influence of Cement, Bitumen, and Lime on Some Lateritic Soil Samples as Pavement Material,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 413, 2018. Crossref, 899X/413/1/012012
[27] B. Dabou, C. Kanali, and Z. Abiero-Gariy, “Structural Performance of Laterite Soil Stabilised with Cement and Blue Gum (Eucalyptus Globulus) Wood Ash for Use as a Road Base Material,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 257-264, 2021. Crossref,