Engineering Properties of Laterite soil Stabilized with Heavy Fuel Oil for Use as a Road Sub-base Material

Engineering Properties of Laterite soil Stabilized with Heavy Fuel Oil for Use as a Road Sub-base Material

© 2023 by IJETT Journal
Volume-71 Issue-2
Year of Publication : 2023
Author : Benewende Thomas Arnaud Tamalgo, Timothy Nyomboi, Christopher Kanali
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V71I2P219

How to Cite?

Benewende Thomas Arnaud Tamalgo, Timothy Nyomboi, Christopher Kanali, "Engineering Properties of Laterite soil Stabilized with Heavy Fuel Oil for Use as a Road Sub-base Material," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 157-164, 2023. Crossref,

The present study investigates the engineering properties of laterite soil stabilized with heavy fuel oil for use as a road sub-base material. The laterite soil is thoroughly mixed with heavy fuel oil in varying amounts, with the concentration of heavy fuel oil varying from 0 to 10% of the total weight of the soil sample. To determine the best soil-heavy fuel oil combination, each soil sample undergoes tests for Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) permeability and Californian Bearing Ratio (CBR). UCS and CBR values increase as heavy fuel oil concentrations increase from 0 to 4% and decrease from 6 to 10%. At 7 days of curing, a 4% heavy fuel oil content results in a peak CBR of 40.8% and a UCS value of 1.21 MPa. The peak value of the CBR met the specifications (>30% recommended by Kenya's road design manual) and also 30% by the Federal Ministry of Works’ General Specification on Nigerian Roads for use in the construction of road sub-base. The research discovers that the permeability values of the soil decrease from 8.03x10-5 to 1.31x10-5 cm/s as the amount of heavy fuel oil increases, with the lowest permeability values observed at a concentration of 6% fuel oil. Beyond this content, the permeability starts increasing. Therefore, based on the guidelines set by the Nigerian General Specification and Kenya Road Design Manual, which recommend a minimum CBR value of 30% for road sub-base, the utilization of 4% heavy fuel oil in the stabilization of laterite soil for use as a sub-base in road construction is recommended.

Heavy fuel oil, Californian bearing ratio, Laterite, Unconfined compressive strength, Permeability.

[1] Mahamadou Souley Issiakou et al., “Study of Lateritic Materials Used in Road Construction in Niger: Improvement Method,” Civil Engineering University Meetings, Bayonne, France, 2015.
[2] G. Vorobieff, AustStab Construction Tip 1F, 2008.
[3] A. Pandey, and A. Rabbani, “Soil Stabilisation using Cement Effect of Temperature on Swelling Pressure and Compressibility Characteristics of Soil View Project Soil Contamination Remediation Technology View Project Soil Stabilisation,” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 6, 2017.
[4] Afaf Ghais Abadi Ahmed, “Fly Ash Utilization in Soil Stabilization,” International Conference on Civil, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Turkey, Istanbul, 2014.
[5] N. Vijay Kumar et al., “Study on Strength of Laterite Soil Using Bitumen Emulsion and ESP, CSA,” International Journal of Current Engineering and Scientific Research, vol. 4, no. 7, 2017.
[6] Z. N. Rasheed, F. R. Ahmed, and H. M. Jassim, “Effect of Crude Oil Products on the Geotechnical Properties of Soil,” WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, vol. 186, pp. 353–362, 2015. Crossref,
[7] M C Jayaprakash et al., “Experimental Study on Lateritic Soil Stabilization with Waste Engine Oil and Lime,” Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, vol. 12, no. 10, 2021. Crossref,
[8] Kamran Iqbal et al., “Effect of Used Motor Oil and Bitumen as Additive on the Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Low Plastic Soil,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2020. Crossref,
[9] Abdullah Ekinci, Mohammad Hanafi, and Ertug Aydin, “Strength, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Wood-Ash Stabilized Marine Clay,” Minerals, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 796, 2020. Crossref,
[10] Richard H McKee et al., “The Toxicological Effects of Heavy Fuel Oil Category Substances,” International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 33, pp. 95S-109S, 2014. Crossref,
[11] Ayininuola Gbenga Matthew, and Abidoye Shola Paul, “Soil Stabilization Using Bitumen Emulsion and Cement Combination as Additive,” Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 66–74, 2018. Crossref,
[12] I. I. Akinwumi, D Diwa, and N Obianigwe, “Effects of Crude Oil Contamination on the Index Properties, Strength and Permeability of Lateritic Clay,” Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, vol. 3, no. 4, 2014. Crossref,
[13] Bamitale Dorcas Oluyemi-Ayibiowu, Igibah Christopher Ehizemhen, and Lucia Omolayo Agashua, “Appraisal of Strength Characteristics of Bituminous Additive Lateritic Soil as Pavement Material in Construction Industry,” International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1780-1788, 2022.
[14] I. N Obeta, and O. J Eze-Uzomaka, “Geotechnical Properties of Waste Engine Oil Contaminated Laterites,” Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 32, no. 2, 2013.
[15] Ismaël Dabakuyo, Raphael N. Mutuku, and Richard O. Onchiri, "Effect of Sugarcane Molasses on the Physical Properties of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Stabilized Laterite Soil," SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1-12, 2021. Crossref,
[16] Hans F. Winterkorn, and E. C. Chandrasekharan, Laterite Soils and Their Stabilization, 1949.
[17] B. S. 1377, Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, 1990.
[18] BS. 1924, Stabilized Materials for Civil Engineering Purposes, 1990.
[19] O. W. Road, and O. Development, “A Guide to The Structural Design of Bitumen- Surfaced Roads in tropical and Sub-Tropical, London, 1993. [Online]. Available:
[20] A.S.T.M. C39/C 39M, “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens,” American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, 2009.
[21] Manasseh Joel, and Isaac O. Agbede, “Mechanical-Cement Stabilization of Laterite for Use as Flexible Pavement Material,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, pp. 146-152, 2011. Crossref,
[22] Majoie Ronelyam Mbakbaye, Erick Kiplangat Ronoh, and Isaac Fundi Sanewu, "Effects of Shea Nutshell Ash on Physical Properties of Lateritic Soil," SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1-6, 2021. Crossref,
[23] ASTM D5084: Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter.
[24] Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, Nigerian General Specifications for Roads and Bridges, Federal Highway Department, FMWH: Lagos, Nigeria, vol. 11, 1997.
[25] Kenya, Ministry of Roads and Public Works, Road Design Manual: Part III Materials & New Pavement Design, pp. 1263, 1987.
[26] Brice T Kamtchueng et al., “Geotechnical, Chemical and Mineralogical Evaluation of Lateritic Soils in Humid Tropical Area (Mfou, Central-Cameroon): Implications for Road Construction,” International Journal of Geo-Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, 2015. Crossref,
[27] MARPOL, International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 2011. [Online]. Available: IMO.pdf
[28] J. D. Akshatha, Ramakrishna Hegde, and K. E. Prakash, "Experimental Study of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Diospyros Malabarica," SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 27-32, 2022. Crossref,
[29] Surendra Roy, and Sanjeev Kumar Bhalla, Role of Geotechnical Properties of Soil on Civil Engineering Structures, Resources and Environment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 103-109, 2019. Crossref,
[30] Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri, and Omotayo Ogundijo, “Modeling Used Engine Oil Impact on the Compaction and Strength Characteristics of a Lateritic Soil,” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 17, pp. 3491-3501, 2012.
[31] Magdi Zumrawi, and Mohamed Awad, “Effect of Bitumen and Fly Ash on Expansive Soil Properties,” Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 2017, no. 49, pp. 228–237, 2017.
[32] IRC 37-2012: Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements, The Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.
[33] Ziming He et al., “Effect of Wollastonite Microfibers as Cement Replacement on the Properties of Cementitious Composites: A Review,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 261, 2020. Crossref,
[34] Mashalah Khamehchiyan, Amir Hossein Charkhabi, and Majid Tajik, “Effects of Crude Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Clayey and Sandy Soils,” Engineering Geology, vol. 89, no. 3-4, pp. 220–229, 2007. Crossref,
[35] Opeyemi E. Oluwatuyi et al., “Case Studiesin Construction Materials Ameliorating Effect of Milled Eggshell on Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soil for Highway Construction,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 9, p. e00191, 2018. Crossref,
[36] Solomon Idowu Adedokun, “Valorization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil with High Calcium Waste Wood Ash,” Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 7, no. 1, 2019.
[37] Joshua Ochepo, and A. B. Salahudeen, “Strength Evaluation of Laterite Soil Mixed with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Bagasse Ash for Sub-Base Construction", Nigeria Engineering Conference, 2014.