Wireless Communication Systems For Underground Mines – A Critical Appraisal

  ijett-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2013 by IJETT Journal
Volume-4 Issue-7                      
Year of Publication : 2013
Authors : Ashutosh Patri , Abhijit Nayak , Dr. S. Jayanthu


Ashutosh Patri , Abhijit Nayak , Dr. S. Jayanthu. "W ireless C ommunication S ystems F or U nderground M ines – A C ritical A ppraisa l". International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). V4(7):3149-3153 Jul 2013. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group.


This paper presents an overview of wireless communication systems for underground mines including voice and data commmunication. Development of Wired , semi – wire less and wireless communication syetms are also discussed. Application of various wireless communication syetms in underground mines of USA, australia, canada, South Africa, Europ ian countries etc including indige nous experimetnal trials were illustrated. In this paper a brief review is given on the advanced communication systems adopted in various mines with a bird`s eye view on the basic researches made in 1970 - 2000. Recent devices such as SIAMnet, TeleMag, PED, and VDV leaky feeder systems are discussed which provide voice, video and Mobile Data Communication at very high speed data with wireless applications. Impetus is given for urgent application of recent technologies on wireless communication in view of various disasters due to lack of communication in mines


[1] J.N. Murphy, H.E. Parkinson, “ Underground Mine Communication”, Proceedings of the IE EE, vol. 66, No.1, January 1978.
[2] W. H. Schiffbauer and J. F. Brune, “Underground coal mine communications for emergencies and everyday operation,” Symposium on theCapabilities and Availability of Wireless Communication and TrackingSystems for Underground C oal Mines, Feb. 13, 2006.
[3] Bondyopadhyay L.K., Chaulya S.K., Mishra P.K., “Wireless Communication in Underground Mines”, Springer Publication, 2010, pp. 1 - 50, 88,102,117,135.
[4] Underground Mine Communication (in four parts):2. Paging system/compiled by staff - mining research, Pittsburgh Mining and Safety Research Centre. [Washington]: United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1977.
[5] B. A. Austin, “ Medium frequency body loop antenna for use underground ,” IEE Colloquium on Electrically Small Antennas, pp. 3/1 – 3/5,Oct. 23, 1990.
[6] H. Anis, P. - M. Tardif, R. Ouedraogo, and P. Fortier, “ Communications network for underground mines based on the IEEE 802.11 and DOCSIS standards, ” in Proc. IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2004 – Fall), vol. 5, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., Sept. 26 – 29, 2004, pp. 3605 – 3609.
[7] Jeff Foerster , Intel Labs, “Ultra - wideband Technology for short - range, High - Rate Wireless Communication”, ( www.3g4g.co.uk/other /Uwb/Wp/uwb.pdf ).
[8] Jeff Foerster, Evan Green, SrinivasaSomayazulu , David helper, “ Ultra - Wideband Technology for short or medium - Range Wireless Communication”, 2001.
[9] A. Molisch, “ Ultrawideband propagation channels – theory, measurement, and modeling ,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 54, no. 5, pp.1528 – 1545, Sept. 2005 .
[10] M. H ?am ?al ?ainen, J. Talvitie, V. Hovinen, and P. Lepp ?anen, “ Wideband Radio Channel Measurement in a Mine, ” in Proc. IEEE 5th International Symposium on Spectrum Techniques and Applications, vol. 2, Sept. 2 – 4, 1998, pp. 522 – 526.
[11] Bandyopadhyay L.K., Chaulya S.K., Mishra P.K., Choure A., Baveja B.M., ”Wireless information and safety system for mines”, Journal of scientific & Industrial Research, vol. 68, February 2009,pp. 107 - 117.
[12] – “ LONG - RANGE ACTIVE RFID SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINES ”, WiBorne, Inc. 4790 Irvine Blvd., Suite 105 - 458 .
[13] J. Durkin, “ Apparent earth conductivity over coal mines as estimated from through - the - earth electromagnetic transmission tests, ” U.S. Department of the Interior, Bure au of Mines, Report of Investigations 8869 NTIS PB84 – 213792, 1984 .
[14] T. S. Cory, “ Antenna design and coupling studies at medium frequency for improved coal mine communications ,” Bureau of Mines,Department of the Interior, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.A., Final Report P0382223, Dec. 15, 1978 .
[15] Debalina Ghosh, HongSik Moon , Tapan K. Sarkar ,”Design Of Through - The - Earth Mine Communication System Using Helical Antennas” , IEEE ,2008.
[16] D. B. Large, L. Ball, and A. J. Farstad, “ Radio Transmission toand from Underground Coal Mines – Theory and Measurement ,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM – 21, no. 3, pp. 194 – 202, Mar. 1973.
[17] K. - S. Chung, “ A radio communications network for voice and data in underground mines ,” in Proc. IEEE Annual Conference on Speech and Image Technologies for Computing and Telecommunications (TENCON’2000), vol. 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sept. 24 – 27, 2000, pp. 516 – 521 .
[18] M. D. Aldridge, “Analysis of communication systems in coal mines,” West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A., USBM Grant Fina l Report G0101702 (MIN – 39), May 1, 1973. H. Wheeler, “ Radiowave Propagation In the Earth’s Crust,” Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards – D, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 189 – 191, 1961 .
[19] A. E. Goddard, “ Radio propagation measurements in coal mines at UHF and VHF ,” in Proc. Through – the – Earth ElectromagneticsWorkshop, Golden, CO, Aug. 15 – 17, 1973.
[20] R.A. Isberg ,P.E.,H. Kramer, D.A. Parrish, “ The Implementation of UHF Radio Communications and CCTv Monitoring System in a Room and Pillar Metal/Non Metal Mine”, Contract no - JO 377044,March 1981.
[21] Bensema, W. D., Kanda, Motohisa, Adams, John W. , ” Electromagnetic noise in Robena no. 4 coal mine” , NBS Technical Note 654,1974.
[22] Emslie, A. , Lagace, R. , Stro ng, P. , “ Theory of the propagation of UHF radio waves in coal mine tunnels” , Antennas and Propagation, IEE E Volume:23 Issue:2 , 1975.
[23] Robert L. Lagace, James M. Dobbie, Thomas E , “ Detection of trapped miner electromagnetic signals above coal mines ”, FINAL REPORT ,USBM CONTRACT NO. J0188037July 1980.
[24] H DobroskiJr,Dr. Larry G. Stolarczyk, “ A Whole - Mine Medium - Frequency Radio Communication System ” , Bureau of Mines U.S. Department of the Interior,1973 .
[25] David Berends ,”Underground Mine Rescue Equipment and Technology: A Communications System Plan” , Sarnoff Corporation ,2006.
[26] J. Durkin, “ Apparent earth conductivity over coal mines as estimated from through - the - earth electromagnetic transmission tests, ” U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Report of Investigations 8869 NTIS PB84 – 213792, 1984 .
[27] www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/mineract/pdf/phase 1testing.pdf , Mine Emergency Communication Partnership Phase I, In Mine testing.
[28] M. Moutairou, H. Aniss , G.Y. Delisle, “Wireless Mesh Access Point routing for efficient communication in Underground Mine” , IEEE,2006 .
[29] www.cattron.com/dnn/portals/0/pdf/brochures/SAIMnet.pdf - Mining Product and Services, Cattron gro up International .

wireless communication, RFID, multi - hop protocol , Voice over sensor network, PED, SIAMnet, TeleMa