Bacterial Concrete: New Era For Construction Industry

  ijett-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2013 by IJETT Journal
Volume-4 Issue-9                      
Year of Publication : 2013
Authors : Mayur Shantilal Vekariya , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda


Mayur Shantilal Vekariya , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda. "Bacterial Concrete: New Era For Construction Industry". International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). V4(9):4128-4137 Sep 2013. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group.


Micro - cracks are the ma in cause to structural failure. One way to circumvent costly manual maintenance and repair is to incorporate an autonomous self - healing mechanism in concrete. One such an alternative repair mechanism is currently being studied, i.e. a novel technique based on the application of bio - mineralization of bacteria in concrete. The applicability of specifically calcite mineral precipitating bacteria for concrete repair and plugging of pores and cracks in concrete has been recently investigated and studies on the possibility of using specific bacteria as a sustainable and concrete - embedded self - healing agent was studied and results from ongoing studies are discussed. Synthetic polymers such as epoxy treatment etc . are currently being used for repair of concrete are harmful to the environment, hence the us e of a biological repair technique in concrete is focused. Recently, it is found that microbial mineral precipitation resulting from metabolic activities of favourable microorganisms in concrete improved the overall behaviour of concrete. Hence in this pap er define the bacterial concrete, its classification and types of bacteria, chemical process to fix the crack by bacteria, advantages and dis - advantages and possibilities of application of MICP (Microorganism used for Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Concrete) in construction area by literature review are discussed


1) Annie Peter.J, Lakshmanan.N, Devadas Manoharan.P, Rajamane.N.P& Gopalakrishnan.S ?Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Using Self Compacting Concrete?. The Indian Concrete Journal, June 2004, PP 66 - 72.
2) Bachmeier KL, Williams AE, Warmington JR, Bang SS., “Urease activity in microbiologically - induced calcite precipitation.” Journal of Biotechnology 93, 2002, pp. 171 - 181.
3) Benini S, Rypniewski W, Wilson KS, Miletti S, Ciurli S, Mangani S., “A ne w proposal for urease mechanism based on the crystal structures of the native and inhibited enzyme from Bacillus pasteurii: why urea hydrolysis costs two nickels.” Structure7, 1999, pp.205 - 216.
4) Ciurli S, Marzadori C, Benini S, Deiana S, Gessa C., “Urease from the soil bacterium: Bacillus pasteurii immobilization on Ca - polygalacturonate.” Soil Biol Bio chem 28, 1996, pp. 811 - 817.
5) De Muynck W., Cox K., De Belie N. and Verstraete W. ” Bacterial carbonate precipitation as an alternative surface treatment for concrete”, Constr Build Mater, 22, 875 - 885 (2008)
6) F. Hammes, N. Boon, J. De Villiers, W. Verstraete, S. D. Siciliano, and J. De Villiers, “Strain - Specific Ureolytic Microbial Calcium Carbonate Precipitation,” Applied And Environmental Micro biology , vol.69, no.8, 2003, pp. 4901 – 4909.
7) Ghosh P, Mandal S, Chattopadhyay BD, Pal S., “Use of microorganism to improve the strength of cement mortar.” Cement and Concrete Research 35 , 2005, pp.1980 - 1983.
8) González - Muñoz M.T., Ben - Chekroun K., Ben - Aboud A., Arias J.M. and Rodriguez - Gallego M., Bacterially induced Mg - Calcite formation: Role of Mg2+ in development of crystal morphology, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 70, 559 - 564 (2000)
9) H. M. Jonkers and E. Schlangen, “A two component bacteria - based self - healing concrete,” Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II , 2009, pp. 215 – 220.
10) Horner - Devine MC, Carney KM, Bohannan BJM, “An ecological perspective on bacterial biodiversity”. Proceedings Royal Society Biological Science B 271, 2004, pp.113 – 1 22.
11) J. G. Holt, Ed ., Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology , 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1994.
12) J. L. Day, A. V. Ramakrishnan, and S. S. Bang, “Microbiologically Induced Sealant For Concrete Crack Remediation,” 16th Engineering Mechanics Conference , 2003, pp.1 – 8.
13) J. P. Prescott and M. Harley Lansing, Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology , Fifth edit. The McGraw?Hill, 2002, pp. 57 – 77.
14) K. D. Arunachalam, K. S. Sathyanarayanan, B. S. Darshan, and R. B. Raja, “Studies on the characterization of Bio sealant properties of Bacillus sphaericus,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , vol.2, no.3, 2010, pp. 270 – 277.
15) Muynck W, Dick J, De Graef B, De Windt W, Verstraete W, De Belie N., “Microbial ureolytic calcium carbonate pr ecipitation for remediation of concrete surfaces.” Proceedings of International conference on concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting , South Africa, Cape Town, 2005, pp. 296 - 297.
16) N. Chahal, R. Siddique, and A. Rajor, “Influence of bacteria on the compressive strength, water absorption and rapid chloride permeability of fly ash concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol.28, no.1, 2012, pp.351 - 356
17) N. De Belie and W. De Muynck, “Crack repair in concrete using bio deposition,” Concrete Repai r, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II , 2009, pp.777 – 782.
18) P. Tiano, L. Biagiotti, G. Mastromei, “Bacterial biomediated calcite precipitation for monumental stones conservation: methods of evaluation”, Journal of Microbiological Methods , Vol.36, Issues 1 – 2, 1999, pp.139 - 145.
19) S. S. Bang, J. J. Lippert, U. Yerra, S. Mulukutla, and V. Ramakrishnan, “Microbial calcite, a bio - based smart nanomaterial in concrete remediation,” International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials , vol.1, no.1, 2010, pp. 28 – 39.
20) Sanch ez - Moral S., Canaveras J.C., Laiz L., Saiz - Jimenez C.,Bedoya J., and Luque LBiomediated precipitation ofcalcium carbonate metastable phases in hypogeanenvironments: A short review, Geomicrobiology Journal , 20(5), 491 - 500 (2003)
21) Seshagiri Rao M.V., Ch Sas ikala V. and Srinivasa Reddy, “A Biological Approach To Enhance Strength And Durability In Concrete” Structures, International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology (IJAET ), Sept 2012 4(2), 392 - 399 (2012)
22) Stocks - Fischer, S., Galinat , J.K., and Bang, S.S.”Microbiological Precipitation of CaCO3,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 31, 1999, 1563 - 1571.
23) Tai C.Y. and Chen F.B., Polymorphism of CaCO 3 precipitated in a constant - composition environment. AIChE Journal , 44(8), 1790 - 1798 (1998)
24) V . Bang, S.S., Galinat, J.K., and Ramakrishnan, “Cal - cite Precipitation Induced by Polyurethane Immobilized Bacillus Pasteurii,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology , vol.28, 2001, pp. 404 – 409.
25) V. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Panchalan, S. S. Bang, and R.City, “Improvem ent of Concrete Durability By Bacterial Mineral Precipitation,” International Conference on Fracture , 2005.

bacterial concrete, types of bacteria, MICP , construction , chemical process ,