Impact of Aquaculture on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Water and Soils in the Coastal Tracts of East and West Godavari Districts, Andhra Pradesh, India
A.Rama Krishna Raju Penmetsa , Sitarama Reddy Muppidi , Raghuram Popuri , Suri Babu Golla , Rambabu Tenneti. "Impact of Aquaculture on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Water and Soils in the Coastal Tracts of East and West Godavari Districts, Andhra Pradesh, India ". International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). V6(6):313-319 Dec 2013. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
The Physico-chemical characteristics of water and soil in aquaculture areas were investigated. Water samples were analysed with respect to PH, Phosphates, Sulphates, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Chlorides, Nitrites, Nitrates, Ammonia, D.O., B.O.D. and C.O.D. The soil samples were analysed with respect to PH, Total Dissolved Solids, Electrical Conductivity, Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Sulphur. Heavy metals like Iron, Manganese, Zinc and Copper were also measured in soil samples. A comparison of Irrigation canal waters of East and West Godavari in Antarvedi and Kalavapudi areas, which are flourished with intensive aquaculture practice were studied. Similarly soil samples were collected from dried aqua ponds from both the areas and are analysed for various parameters to understand the quality of soil and impact of aquaculture on these areas. Aquaculture impact is more pronounced in Kalavapudi area of West Godavari District in comparison to Antarvedi area of East Godavari District.
 APHA, Clescerl, Leonore S. (Editor), Greenberg, Arnold E. (Editor), Eaton, Andrew D. (Editor), “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater” (20thed.) (American Public Health Association). Washington. DC 2008
 A.R.K Raju Penmetsa, S.R.Reddy Muppidi, Raghuram Papuri, Suri Babu Golla and Rambabu Tenneti, “Aquaculture and its impact on ground water in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India- A case study ”. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 2(10): 1-5, 2013
Braaten B, Aure J, Ervik A, “Pollution on problem on Norwegian fish farms” Aquaculture Ireland, No.14:6-7, 1983
 B.R. Kiran, “Physico- Chemical Characteristics of Fish Pond of Bhadra Project at Karnataka”Rasayan J. Chem. 3(4): 671-676, 2010
 Boyd, C.E., “Bottom Soils, Sediment and Pond Aquaculture”, Chapman Hall, New York, 2000
 Devi Priyamvada, D.Sirisha and Y. Gandhi “Study on the quality of water and soil from fish pond in around Bhimavaram, West Godavari district, A.P., India,” International Research Journal of Environmental Science, 2(1), 58-62, 2013
 Emerson Kagoo I. and Rajalakshmi N., 2002 “Environemntal and Social conflicts of Aquaculture in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh” Journal of Social and Economic Development, IV (1): 13-26, 2002
 Fuge-Smith, S. and M.R.P. Briggs “Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds. Implication for sustainability”. Aquaculture 164, 18,117-133, 1998
 Environmental Guidelines for Small Scale Activities in Africa. EGSSA, USAID, FISHERIES, 1-25, 2009 www.encapafrica.org
 Jakson, M.L. “Soil Chemical Analysis”. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1958
 Kom Silapajarn, C.E.Boyd and Orawan Silpajarn, “Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Pond Water and Bottom Soil in Channel Cat Fish Ponds in West Central Alabama” Bulletin 655:1-441(166-168) 2004
 M.Jayanthi, P.Nila Rekha, M.Muralidhar and B.P. Gupta, “Seepage Reduction in Brackish Water Ponds with Different Materials”, Eco. Env &Cons. 10(3):257-260, 2004
 M.A.M. Siddique, P.Babrua and M.H.Ghani, “Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical properties of Soil according to the age of Aquaculture pond of Bangladesh”. Mesopot. J.Mar.Sci. 27(1):29-38, 2012
 Mitra Rajarshi, Santra S.C., “Influence of Brackish water aquaculture on Soil Salinisation”. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 1(2):166-168, 2011
 P. Mynar Babu, G.Sai Sankar and V.Sreenivasulu “Impacts of Aquaculture on Water Resources Utilization and Land Resources of Krishna District using with Remote Sensing and GIS Technique”. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(7): 3201-3206, 2013
 Okomoda Victor J., “Effects of Aquaculture on Environment.” A Seminar on Aquaculture and the Environment, Effects and Best Practices. (DE/12925/08) :962,May 2011 https://www.academia.edu/100583/Effects_of_Aquaculture_on_environment
 R.Sivakumar, A.M.Kiruthika and S.Suresh Babu, “Remote Sensing and GIS Application in Brackish Aquaculture in Northern part of Andhrapradesh from Srikakulam to West Godavari”. International Journal of p2p Network Trends and Techniques, 2(2): 42-49, 2012
 Top 10 Problems with Ocean Fish Farming, Food & Water Watch. ww.foodandwaterwatch.org/fish/fish/farming/ problems
 TROPECA: Environmental Capacity: Its application for the environmental management of aquaculture in tropical developing countries. Impact of soil and water resources and the spread of disease.
Aquaculture, Soil salinity, Mangrove forest, Salt water intrusion, Heavy metals, Eutrophication and Soil nutrients.