Compressive Strength Formula for Concrete using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Prof. Dr. Bayan S. Al-Nu’man, Bestoon R. Aziz, Sabr A. Abdulla, Sirwan E. Khaleel"Compressive Strength Formula for Concrete using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V26(1),9-13 August 2015. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
This paper investigates the relationship between the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and the compressive strength of concrete. The specimens used in the study were made of concrete with a varied cube compressive strength from 18 to 55MPa. Number of specimens was over 800 received from various construction projects of controlled concrete quality and tested by the Hawler Construction Laboratories (HCLabs) in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, during the last half of 2014. The UPV measurement and compressive strength tests were carried out at the concrete age of 28 days. The experimental results show that although the UPV and the compressive strength of concrete are related, no unique relationship can be established to cover all concrete specimens. It is found, from a companion research, that with certain levels of concrete coarse aggregate content, certain clear relationships can be established. This paper proposes the UPV - strength relationship formulas/curves for concrete having the range from 18 to 55MPa of concrete strength. These curves were verified to be suitable for prediction of hardened concrete strength with a measured UPV value. Other proposals found in literature are compared and discussed. It is believed that the proposed formulas may be appropriately applied and used for the service of the local construction practice of the country.
 Lin,Y., Kuo, S-F, Hsiao C., Lai, C-P “Investigation of Pulse Velocity- Strength Relationship of hardened Concrete” ACI Materials Journal, V. 104, No. 4, July.-Aug. 2007 , pp. 344- 350.
 Tanigawa, Y.; Baba, K.; and Mori, H., “Estimation of Concrete Strength by Combined Nondestructive Testing Method,” In-Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, SP-82, V. M. Malhotra, ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1984, pp. 57-76.
 Sturrup, V. R.; Vecchio, F. J.; and Caratin, H., “Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength,” In-Situ/NondestructiveTesting of Concrete, SP-82, V. M. Malhotra, ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1984, pp. 201-227.
 Lin, Y.; Changfan, H.; and Hsiao, C., “Estimation of High- Performance Concrete Strength by Pulse Velocity,” Journal of the ChineseInstitute of Engineers, V. 20, No. 6, 1998, pp. 661-668.
 Lin, Y.; Lai, C. P.; and Yen, T., “Prediction of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) in Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, V. 100, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 2003, pp. 21-28.  Iraqi Specification IOS 45 – 1984
 ACI 211.1 – Reapproaved 2009,Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete, An ACI Standard Reported by ACI Committee 211, 38pp.
 Whitehurst, E.A., Evaluation of Concrete Properties from Sonic Tests, ACI Monograph No. 2, ACI, Detroit, MI (1966). Cited by Guidebook On Non-Destructive Testing Of Concrete Structures, IAEA, Vienna, 2002, IAEA–TCS–17
 Tarun R. Naik, V. Mohan Malhotra and John S. Popovics,”The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method” in the Handbook of Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, Chapter 8, 2004.
 Bayan S. Al-Numan, Bestoun Ramadhan, Sabr Ali, and Serwan Essmat, “Effect of Aggregate Content on the Compressive Strength – UPV Relationship” to be published, 8pp.
 Raouf Z. and Ali Z.M. “Assessment of Concrete Characteristics at an Early Age By Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity", Journal of Building Research, Vol.2, No.1, May 1983, pp.31- 44.
 RILEM Draft Recommendation, 43-CND. (1993). Combined non-destructive testing of concrete. Draft recommendation for in situ concrete strength determination by combined nondestructive methods. Materials and Structures, 26, pp.43-49.
concrete strength; NDT; ultrasonic pulse velocity.