Aspects of City's Fortification through Time: The challenge of Fortifying Baghdad as a Case Study

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2015 by IJETT Journal
Volume-28 Number-6
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : Sahar B. M. Al-Qaisi
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V28P251


Sahar B. M. Al-Qaisi"Aspects of City's Fortification through Time: The challenge of Fortifying Baghdad as a Case Study", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V28(6),269-276 October 2015. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group

Since his very first steps to develop a shelter, the first thing that jumps to Man's mind is indeed how to fortify his own territory and protect it from the outside, intruders, and for sure enemies whether humans or animals. This paper illustrates the development of city's fortification through time and the transformations in its aspects that change according to the development of the attacking techniques. This issue is of great importance to the developing countries that suffer for long years from what is known as the modern warfare and terrorism afterward like Iraq. To be secured, therefore, is the major concern of Iraqi citizens, and since their cities are still treated with no clear fortification strategy or updated plan; this paper offers a quick overview on important old and contemporary global techniques that could provide people with the sense of security in their cities and communities. The paper will then discuss the challenge of fortification in Baghdad as an example of the cities that suffer a severe lack of security.


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Fortification, Electronic Surveillance, Defensible Space, Gated Communities, Ring of Steel, Optical Urbanization, Baghdad.