Utilization of Polyacrylamide grafted Brewer Spent Grain (BSG) for Sorption of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions in aqueous solution
|International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)||
|© 2017 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2017|
|Authors : Samuel, A.E, Olotu, O.O, Nwankwo, I.C, Odesola O.O, Akinsanya O.O
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V43P208|
Samuel, A.E, Olotu, O.O, Nwankwo, I.C, Odesola O.O, Akinsanya O.O "Utilization of Polyacrylamide grafted Brewer Spent Grain (BSG) for Sorption of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions in aqueous solution", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V43(1),47-52 January 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
Adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ using polyacrylamide grafted brewer’s spent grain (BSG-g-PAAM) in aqueous solution was investigated. Sorption capacities for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ were found to be 95.12, 87.45 and 84.65% respectively. The uptake of these metal ions were studied with the following parameters; PH, temperature, initial metal ion concentration, ionic strength and effect of contact time, in order to deduced the optimum condition for practical application of this adsorption material. The outcome indicated that metal ion sorption by BSG-g-PAAM decreased after temperature range of 49-52oC for these metal ions. Increase in ionic strength led to a decrease in sorption capacity. While increase in initial metal ion concentration showed an increase in adsorbate uptake. Optimal sorption capacity occurred at PH 4.0, 4.9 and 5.0 for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ respectively. The result from this study demonstrated the ability of BSG-g-PAAM as a resource adsorbent material for the remediation of polluted streams.
1) Ahmady-Asbchin, S., Andres, Y., Gerente, C., and LeCloirec, P., (2008).” Biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution by Fucus serratus: Surface characterization and sorption mechanisms. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 14: 6150-6155.
2) Aksu, Z., and Donmez, G., (2006). “Binary biosorption of cadmium (II) and nickel (II) onto dried Chlorella vulgaris: Co-ion effect on mono-component isotherm parameters” Process Biochem. 41: 4: 860-868.
3) Aldehold, D., Williams, J.C., and Edyvean, J.B.R. (1996). The removal of heavy metal ions by seaweeds and their derivatives. Bioresource Technol. 58: 1-6.
4) Al-momani, F., Touraud, E., Degorce-Dumas, J.R., Roussy, J., and Thomas, O. (2002). Biodegradability enhancement of textile dyes and textile wastewater by VUV photolysis. J. photochem. Photobiol. A. Chem. 153: 191-198.
5) Bai, R.S., and Abraham, T.E. (2001). “Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by Rhizopus nigricans” Bioresour. Technol. 79: 73-81.
6) Barminas, J.T., Ajayi, J.O. and Osemeahon, S.A. (2005). Development of Sodium alginate and Konkoli gum-grafted-poluacrylamide blend membrane. Science Forum J. Pure and Appl. Sci. 8: 70-79.
7) Cassano, A., Molinari, R., Romano, M., and Drioli, E., (2001). Treatment of aqueous effluents of the leather industry by membrane processes: a review. J. Membr. Sci. 181: 111-137.
8) Chamarthy, S., Wseo, C., Marshall, W.E. (2001). Adsorption of selected toxic metals by modified peanut shells. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 76: 593-597.
9) Chen, J.P., Wu, S.N., and Chong, K.H. (2003). “Surface modification of granular activated carbon by citric acid for enhancement of copper adsorption” Carbon 41:10: 1979-1986.
10) Chen, C., and Wang, J.L., (2007a). Characteristics of Zn2+ Biosorption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 20:6:478-482.
11) Cooper, C., Jiang, J.Q., and Ouki, S. (2002). Preliminary evaluation of polymeric Fe and Al-modified clays as adsorbents for heavy metal removal in water treatment. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 77: 546-551.
12) Fillandeau, L., Blanpain-Avet, P., and Daufin, G., (2006). Water, Wastewater and Waste Management in Brewing Industries. J. Cleaner Prod. 14:463-471.
13) Fu, F., and Wang, Q. (2011).” Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters; a review” Journal of Environmental Management. 92: 407-418.
14) Garg, U., Kaur, M.P., Jawa, G.K., Sud, D., and Garg, V.K., (2008b). “Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by adsorption on agricultural waste biomass” J. Hazard. Mater. 154: 3: 1149-1157.
15) Ghaedi, M., and Mosallanejad, N., (2013). Removal of heavy metal ions from Polluted Waters by using Low cost Adsorbents: a review. Journal of Chemical Health Risks 3:1:7-22.
16) Honda, K., Tatsukawa, R., Itano, K., Miyazaki, N., and Fujiyama, T. (1983). Heavy metal concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissue of strip dolphin stenella coeruleoalba and their variations with body length, weight, age and sex. J. Agric. and Biol. 47: 1219-1228.
17) Horike, S., Matsuzawa, S., and Yanaura, K. (2002). Preparation of crosslinked gels with maleate-denatured poly (Vinyl alcohol) and its application to drug release. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 85: 139-152.
18) Horsfall, M., and Spiff, A.I. (2004). Studies on the Effect of pH on the sorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions by Caladium bicolor (Wild cocoyam) Biomass. J. Biotech. 7: 3: 313-323.
19) Hu, Z., Lei, L., Li, Y., and Hi, Y., (2003). Chromium adsorption on high-performance activated carbons from aqueous solutions. Separation and Purification Technology. 31:1: 13-18.
20) Karnitz, O., Gurgel, L.V.A., de Freitas, R.P., and Gil, L.F., (2009). Adsorption of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from aqueous single metal solutions by mercerized cellulose and mercerized sugarcane bagasse chemically modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD). Carbohydrate Polymers. 77:3:643-650.
21) Lee, M.G., Lim, J.H., and Kam, S.K. (2002). Biosorption characteristics in the mixed heavy metal solution by biosorbents of marine brown algae. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 19:2: 277-284.
22) Lee, W., and Lin, G. (2000). Supersorbent polymeric materials VIII: Swelling behavior of crosslinked poly(sodium acylate-co-trimethylmethacrylol oxyethyl ammonium iodide) in aqueous salt solution. J. Appl. Polym.Sci. 79: 1665-1674.
23) Li, X., Tang, Y., Cao, X., Lu, D., Luo, F., and Shao, W., (2008). Preparation and evaluation of orange peel cellulose adsorbents for effective removal of cadmium, zinc, cobalt and nickel. Colloids Surf. A. 317: 3: 512-521.
24) Mohan, D., and Pitman, C.U. (2006). Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri-and hexavalent chromium from water. J. Hazardous Materials. 137:2:762-811.
25) Okieimen, F.E., and Okundaye, J.N., (1989). Removal of cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions with Thiolated maize (Zea mays) cob meal. Boil. Waste. 30:225-230.
26) Okieimen, F.E., Okundia, E.U., and Ogbeifun, D.E., (1991). Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogeal) husk. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 51:97-103.
27) Osemeahon, S.A., Barminas, J.T., Aliyu, B.A., and Nkafamiya, I.I. (2008). Application of grafted membranes for sorption of Cd2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions in aqueous solution. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry; 2:3: 032-036.
28) Ozer, D., Ozer, A., and Dursun, G. (2002). Investigation of Zinc (II) adsorption on cladophora crispate in a two-staged reactor. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 75: 410-416.
29) Parsons, E.C.M. (1999). Trace metal concentrations in tissues of cetaceans from Hong Kong’s territorial waters. Env. Con. 26: 30-40.
30) Sheng, P.X., Ting, Y.P., and Chen, J.P., (2007). Biosorption of heavy metal ions (Pb, Cu and Cd) from aqueous solutions by marine algae Sargassum sp. in single-and multiple-metal systems. Indus. Eng. Chem. Res. 46:8: 2438-2444.
31) Shibi, I.G., and Anirudhan, T.S., (2006). Polymer-grafted banana (Musa paradisiaca) stalk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solutions: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 81: 3: 433-444.
32) Tang, D., Yin, G., He, Y., Hu, S., Li, B., Li, L., Liang, H., and Borthakur, D., (2009). Recovery of protein from Brewer’s Spent Grain by Ultrafiltration. Biochem. Eng. J. 48:1-5.
33) Toti, S. U., and Aminabhavi, T.M. (2002). Pervaporation separation of water-isopropyl alcohol mixture with blend membranes of sodium alginate and poly(acrylamide)-grafted guar-gum. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 85: 2014-2024.
34) Xiros, C., and Cristakopollos, P., (2009). Enhanced ethanol Production from Brewer’s Spent Grain by a Fusarium oxysporum Consolidated system. Biotechnology for Biofuels.2:4.
—Adsorption, Sorption capacity, Grafting, Aqueous solution, Remediation