A Novel Approach for Resistance Spot Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2017 by IJETT Journal
Volume-47 Number-7
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Kamal Shelly, D.S.Sahota
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V47P269


Kamal Shelly, D.S.Sahota "A Novel Approach for Resistance Spot Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel 316", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V47(7),415-423 May 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group

Resistance spot welding has vital applications its main function is for joining gadget in Car Company and a regular automobile includes more than 3000 spot welds when current is passed through the welded work pieces the heat is produced due to resistance.This paper evaluates the mechanical characteristics of spot welds by performing tensile shear testing, evaluate the qualitative characteristics of spot welds by hardness of weld nugget, to study and analyses the influence of welding parameters (welding current, electrode force and weld time) on the weld characteristics of 316 ASS (1mm thickness) and to optimize the welding parameters using better model for achieving the desired weld quality i.e. maximum shear strength. It is clear from the results those parameters significantly affect the hardness and nugget diameter of the spot welded joint.


1. A.K. Pandey, M.I. Khan. K.M. Moeed, “Investigation of the effect of current on tensile strength and nugget diameter of spot welds made on AISI-1008 steel sheets,” International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 01-08.
2. D.S. Sahota, Ramandeep Singh, Rajesh Sharma, Harpreet Singh, “Study of Effect of Parameters On Resistance Spot Weld of ASS316 Material,” Mechanica Confab, Vol. 2, No. 2, February-March 2013, pp. 67- 78.
3. Mr. Niranjan Kumar Singh and Dr. Y. Vijayakumar, “Application of Taguchi method for optimization of resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steel AISI 301L,” Innovative Systems Design and Engineering, 2012, vol 3, pp. 49-61.
4. A. G. Thakur, V. M. Nandedkar, “Application of Taguchi Method to Determine Resistance Spot Welding Condition of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Sept. 2010, vol. 69, pp. 680-683.
5. FeramuzKarc, RamazanKacar, SuleymanGunduz,” The Effect of Process Parameter on The Properties of Spot Welded Cold Deformed AISI304 Grade Austenitic Stainless Steel”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 209, 2009, pp. 4011– 4019.
6. NachimaniCharde, RajprasaadRajkumar, “Investigating Spot Weld Growth on 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel (2 Mm) Sheets”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 8, 2013, Pp. 69 – 76.
7. DanialKianersi, Amir Mostafaei, Ahmad Ali Amadeh, “Resistance spot welding joints of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets: Phase transformations, mechanical properties and microstructure characterizations”, Elsevier, Materials and Design, vol. 61, 2014, pp. 251–263.
8. Mehdi Mansouri Hasan Abadi, Majid Pouranvari,” Correlation between Macro/Micro Structure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Resistance Spot Welds of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel And AISI 1008 Low Carbon Steel”, Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia (AMES), 2010, vol. 16 (2), pp. 133-146.
9. O. Martin, P. D. Tiedra, M. Lopez, M. San-Juan, C. Garcia, F. Martin, and Y. Blanco, “Quality Prediction of Resistance Spot Welding Joints of 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel”, Materials and Design, 30(2009), pp. 68–77.
10. C. L. Tsai,, O. A. Jammal, J. C. Papritan and D.W.Dickinson, Modeling of Resistance Spot Weld Nugget Growth,Welding research supplement,AWS,Feb 1992,pp 147-152.
11. Thakur, A. G.; Rasane, A. R.; Nandedkar, V. M., “Finite Element Analysis of resistance spot welding to study nugget formation”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (0976-4259;2010, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p483.
12. StijnDonders, Marc Brughmans, Luc Hermans, Nick Tzannetakis “The Effect of spot Weld Failure on Dynamic Vehicle Performance” .LMS International, Interleuvenlaan 68, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
13. Matteo palmonella, Michael Friswell, “Improving spot weld model in structural dynamics” ASME 2003 Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 2-6, 2003.
14. Pullens D.K (1948), “Steel and its heat treatments”, John wiley and Sons , New York, 5th Ed., vol.1.
15. M. Alenius,PPohjanne,M.Somervuori and H Hanninen,Exploring the Mechanical Properties of Spot Welded Dissimilar Joints for Stainless and Galvanized Steels,Welding journal-Dec 2006,pp 305- 313.
16. A. K. Biradar, M. M. Akarate and S. Ram Reddy, Study and analysis of resistance spot welding of dissimilar metal having medium range thickness, International J. of Math. Sci. &Engg.Appls. (IJMSEA) ISSN 0973-9424, Vol. 3 No. IV (2009), pp. 33-51.
17. Studer, F.J., Contact Resistance in Spot Welding, Welding Journal 18(10), p. 374-380, 1939.
18. M.Vogler and S. Sheppard, Electrical Contact Resistance under High Loads and Elevated Temperatures, Welding Journal, 71(6): p.231s - 238s, 1993.
19. W. F. Savage, E. F. Nippes and F.A.Wassell, Static Contact Resistance of Series Spot Welds, Welding Journal, 56(11), p. 365s - 370s, 1977.
42. P.S. James, H.W. Chandler, et al, The Effect of Mechanical Loading on the Contact Resistacne of Coated Aluminium, Materials Science and Engineering A230, p. 194-201, 1997.
20. E. Crinon and J.T. Evans, The Effect of Surface Roughness, Oxide Film Thickness and Interfacial Sliding on the Electrical Contact Resistance of Aluminium, Materials Science and Engineering A242, p.121-128, 1998.
21. R. F. Tylecote, Spot Welding, Part III: Contact Resistance. Welding Journal 20(12}: p. 591s - 602s, 1941.
22. Kin-ichi Matsuyama, Introduction of Prof. Ando’s reports published in 1943 in Japanese, IIW Doc. No. III-1135-99, SC III-A, Doc. IIIA-22-99, Annual Meeting of IIW, Lisbon, Portugal, 1999.

It is clear from the results those parameters significantly affect the hardness and nugget diameter of the spot welded joint.