Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Palm Kernel Fibre Nanofluid Using De-Ionized Water and Ethylene Glycol Mixed at Ratio of 50:50 and 60:40

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2017 by IJETT Journal
Volume-49 Number-1
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Justin Awua, Sunday Ibrahim, Aondona Kwaghger
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V49P207


Justin Awua, Sunday Ibrahim, Aondona Kwaghger "Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Palm Kernel Fibre Nanofluid Using De-Ionized Water and Ethylene Glycol Mixed at Ratio of 50:50 and 60:40", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V49(1),47-53 July 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group

The high level of hazards involved in the use of metallic nanoparticle in nanofluid research is a source of worry since there are reported literatures showing damaging effects of metal oxides to human cells. In this paper, a readily available bio–based Palm kernel fibres were collected and thoroughly washed with water and caustic soda (NaOH) to remove the residual palm oil and sundried for 10 days. Palm kernel fibre nanoparticles were synthesized by subjecting the dry fibre materials to extensive ball milling for 24hours. The resulting nanoparticles were dispersed into mixture of de-ionized water and ethylene glycol mixed at ratios of 50:50 and 60:40 and subjected to ultrasonic agitation for one hour in a constant temperature thermal bath. Volume fractions of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % of nanofluids were formed for the different base fluid mixtures. Particle characterization was done using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy and the result showed slight agglomeration and near spherical shaped particles with average size of about 100 nm. Temperatures was varied from 10 to 50oC and thermal conductivity at the different volume fractions were determined for the different base fluids and their nanofluids. Result showed that thermal conductivity increased with increase in volume fraction and temperature and the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids were higher than that of the base fluids. An enhancement in thermal conductivity of 16.1 and 18.0 % were recorded for nanofluid with 50:50 and 60:40 (de-ionized water and ethylene glycol) base fluid respectively. Maxwell, Hamilton Crosser and Wasp models defied prediction of theoretical values of thermal conductivity.


[1] S.K Das, S.U.S Choi., and W. P Yu., (2008) Transport of Nanofluids. Wiley, Hoboken.
[2] H.A Shibin.,and T. S Krishnakumar ., (2015). Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Glycol/Water Mixture Based Nanofluids. International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. II, Special Issue X.
[3] S.U.S Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, in: DA Siginer, H.P. Wang (Eds.), Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, Vol. 66, ASME, New York, 1995, pp. 99-103.
[4] S. Zussman, More about Argonne’s stable, highly conductive nanofluids, Technology Transfer at Argonne,Public Communication, Argonne National Laboratory, IL,USA, 2002.
[5] J.A. Eastman, S.R. Phillpot, S.U.S. Choi, P. Keblinski, Thermal transport in nanofluids, Annual Rev. Mater. Res. 34 2004. 219-246.
[6] S.K. Das, N. Putra, P. Thiesen, W. Roetzel, Temperature dependence of thermal conductivityenhancementfor nanofluids, J. Heat Trasfer 125 .2003 567-574.
[7] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, W. Hu, Aggregation structure and thermal conductivity of nanofluids, AIChE J. 49 (2003)1038-1043.
[8] J.A. Eastman, S.U.S. Choi, S. Li, L.J. Thompson,Enhanced thermal conductivity through the development of nanofluids, in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Nanophase and Nanocomposite Materials II, Materials Research Society, Boston, 1997, Vol. 457, pp. 3-11.
[9] J.A. Eastman, S.U.S. Choi, S. Li, W. Yu, L.J. Thompson, Anomalously increased effective thermalconductivities of ethylene glycol basednanofluids containing copper nanoparticles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (2001) 718-720.
[10] S. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, S.Li, J.A. Eastman, Measuring thermal conductivities of fluids containingoxide nanoparticles, J. Heat Transfer 121 (1999) 280-289.
[11] I. R. K., Joan (2012) . School of Industrial Engineering and Management Energy Technology EGI-018MSC Division of Applied ThermodynamicsSE-10044STOCKHOLM. Engineering Division, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, FED, 231:99 – 105.
[12] M.,Bahrami, Yovanovich, M.M., and Culham, J.R. (2007). ‘Assessment of relevant physical phenomena controlling thermal performance of Nanofluids’, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.673–680.
[13] J., Koo, and C., Kleinstreuer (2005) ‘Laminar nanofluid flow in microheat-sinks’, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, No. 13, pp.2652–2661,.
[14] J., Li, and C. Kleinstreuer ‘Thermal performance of nanofluid flow in microchannels’, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp.1221–1232.2008.
[15] S.M.S Murshed, K.C Leong and C. Yang., (2008 ). ‘Thermophysical and electrokinetic properties of nanofluids – a critical review’, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, Nos. 17–18, pp.2109–2125.
[16] Wang X.Q., and Mujumdar A.S., (2008). ‘Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids: a review’, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp.1–19.
[17] W. Yu, D.M. France, J.L. Routbort and S.U.S., Choi (2007 )‘Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements’, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp.432–460,
[18] J.C. Lai, M.B.,Lai, S. Jandhyam, V.V., Dukhande, A. Bhushan, C.K., Daniels, and Leung, S.W.(2008).Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts. Int. J. Nanomed., 3, 533-545.
[19] W. Lin, Y. Xu, C.C. Huang, Y. Ma, K.B. Shannon, D.R. Chen, and Y.W. Huang, (2009). Toxicity of nano- and micro-sized ZnO particles in human lung epithelial cells. J. Nanopart. Res., 11, 25-39.
[20] C.C Huang, R.S Aronstam, D.R Chen and Y.W. Huang, (2010). Oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and altered gene expression in human lung epithelial cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles. Toxicol. in vitro, 24, 45-55.
[21] C.Y. Jin, B.S. Zhu X.F. Wang and Q.H. Lu, (2008). Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mouse fibroblast cells. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 21, 1871-1877.
[22] H.L.Karlsson, P.Cronholm, J. Gustafsson and Moller L., (2008). Copper oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic: A comparison between metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 21, 1726-1732.
[23] B. Fahmy, S.A Cormier, (2009). Copper oxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in airway epithelial cells. Toxicol. in vitro, 23, 1365-1371.
[24] M. Kole and T.K., Dey Effect of prolonged ultrasonication on the thermal conductivity of ZnO – ethylene glycol nanofluids. Thermochim Acta; 535:58–65. 2012.
[25] M., Beck, Y., Yuan, P Warrier and A. Teja, (2009). The Effect of Particle Size on the Thermal Conductivity of Alumina Nanofluids,” J. Nanopart. Res., 11(5), pp. 1129-1136.
[26] T.Yiamsawas, O.Mahian, A.S.Dalkilic, Kaewnai S., and Wongwises S., Experimental studies on the viscosity of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a mixture of ethylene glycol and water for high temperature applications. Appl Energy; 111:40–5. 2013.
[27] S. Manikandan, N. Karthikeyan M. Silam barasan K.S. Suganthi and K.S Rajan., Preparation and characterization of sub-micron dispersions of sand in ethylene glycol–water mixture. Brazilian J Chem Eng; 29:699–712. 2012.
[28] K.K. Ikpambese. Production of gasket seals from bambara shell and palm kernel Master’s of Engineering Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi..2010.
[29] K. M. Albert and H. Enno. Palm Kernel Oil Production Process Characterization, An Energy, Poverty and Gender (EnPoGen) Initiative of SNV Ghana, (2013).
[30] B. O. Evbuomwan., A. M. Agbede and Atuka M. M., (2013). A Comparative Study of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Activated Carbon from Oil Palm Waste (Kernel Shell and Fibre). Science and Engineering Investigations, , vol. 2, issue 19, 2251-8843.
[31] R. S Vajjha., and D. K Das., Experimental determination of thermal conductivity of three nanofluids and development of new correlations, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 52, , pp. 4675-4682.2009.
[32] A. Tadjarodi, F Zabihi and. Afshar S, Experimental investigation of thermo-physical properties of platelet mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture, Ceramics International. 39, pp. 7649-7655. 2013.
[33] J.,María, G. Pastoriza- Luis L., José L., Legido M., and Piñeiro M., Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids Nanoscale research letters 6:221. 2011.
[34] B. Lalit, I. Chintamani and Ghuge N.C., Thermo Physical Properties and Heat Transfer Performance of Ethylene Glycol + Water mixture based Al2O3 Nanofluids: A Review. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064. 2013.
[35] M. Chandrasekar, S., Suresh A.C.,Bose Experimental investigations and theoretical determination of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/water nanofluid, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34 . 210–216. 2010.
[36] S. L. Syam, R. E., Venkata K. S. Manoj Antonio C.M. S., Thermal conductivity and viscosity of stabilized ethylene glycol and water mixture Al2O3 nanofluids for heat transfer applications. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 56, 86–95. 2014.

Basefluid, Palm kernel fibre, Nanoparticles, Nanofluid; De-ionized water, Ethylene glycol, Thermal conductivity, Ultrasonication.