Comprehensive Analysis of Electric Power System: State, Vulnerabilities, Limitations, Consequences and Challenges

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)          
© 2017 by IJETT Journal
Volume-50 Number-1
Year of Publication : 2017
Authors : Rehan Rasheed Khan, Jibran Rasheed Khan, Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V50P204


Rehan Rasheed Khan, Jibran Rasheed Khan, Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui "Comprehensive Analysis of Electric Power System: State, Vulnerabilities, Limitations, Consequences and Challenges", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V50(1),17-25 August 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. published by seventh sense research group

The existing electric power transmission and distribution system seems to be incapable to accommodate the irresistible energy crisis, the rising supply, demand gap, the consumers need and more importantly fail to resist supply theft in the country. The rising darkness in the country has become a challenge for everyone to facilitate customer and run business. Industries are closing and unemployment turns into crime. Considering present situation, the core objective of this paper is to identify flaws in the system and their impacts. In this regard, the comprehensive study of energy system performed along with its current structural distribution, flow and govern the body framework to discover the weakness, threats and challenges. Which will be valuable to identify root causes of exiting the situations and also helpful in future work or solutions that specifically targeting real problem and avoid recurrence. The results found ground-breaking facts that not only affecting the country status in global perspective, but also a barrier in the development, industrialization and urbanization. While, the govern authorities focus on adding more power to a system which is not an enduring solution to control the energy situation. On the contrary, the power energy companies suffering from unbearable huge circular debts which gradually increases and losing significant ratio of the GPD every year. The paper discusses all these areas in depth with statistics and findings, highlighting the underline problems and recommendation to overcome the current situation.

[1] Safiya Aftab, “Pakistan?s energy crisis: causes, consequences and possible remedies,” 2014.
[2] F. Hayat and D. Pirzada, “Prevailing Energy Crisis in Pakistan,” Mech. Energy, Environ., pp. 251–258, 2011.
[3] M. K. Arshad and U. Ahmed, “Energy demand in Pakistan: a disaggregrate analysis,” Mpra, no. 15056, pp. 437–455, 2009.
[4] S. Khan and H. F. Ashraf, “Analysis of Pakistan ? s Electric Power Sector,” 2015.
[5] R. N. Lodhi and R. K. Malik, “Impact of Electricity Shortage on Daily Routines: A Case Study of Pakistan,” Energy Environ., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 701–710, Oct. 2013.
[6] KCCI., Energy scenario in transport.pdf, vol. 14. KCCI, 2013.
[7] M. Kugelman, “Pakistan?s Energy Crisis From Conundrum to Catastrophe?,” NBR Comment., pp. 1–7, 2013.
[8] ICCI, “An Overview of Electricity Sector In Pakistan,” 2013.
[9] A. N. Khan, T. Begum, and M. Sher, “Energy Crisis in Pakistan : Causes and Consequences,” Abasyn J. Soc. Sci., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 341–363, 2010.
[10] S. Khalid, “SAARC Study Assessment of Energy Efficiency Potential through Energy Audit of Power Transmission and Distribution Grid Stations in Pakistan December 2014 SAARC Energy Centre , Islamabad,” 2014.
[11] Jie Zhou, “Summary of Smart Grid Presentation,” ifcedc.blogspot, 28-Jul-2011. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 04-Jan-2017].
[12] “Power Generation - Power to the People.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 04-Jan-2017].
[13] “Electrical Grid -” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 03-Jan-2017].
[14] “Typical AC Power Supply system scheme and Elements of Distribution System.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Dec-2016].
[15] “Transmission Grid - Power to the People.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 05-Jan-2017].
[16] S. Ejaz Wasti, “Energy,” in Pakistan Economic Survey 2013-14, 2014.
[17] PPIB, “PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR PLAYERS.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 05-Jan-2017].
[18] “ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST Based On Regression Analysis (Period 2008 to 2030),” 2008.
[19] BOI, “Power & Energy,” Board of Invesment, 2012. [Online]. Available:
[20] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2014-2015, 40th ed. NTCD, 2015.
[21] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2013-2014, 39th ed. NTCD, 2014.
[22] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2012-2013, 38th ed. NTDC, 2013.
[23] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2011-2012, 37th ed. NTDC, 2012.
[24] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2011 June, 36th ed. 2011.
[25] NTDC, POWER SYSTEM STATISTICS 2010 June, 35th ed. NTDC, 2010.
[26] NTDC, “Power Data Reference Book Nov 2010- July 2016,” Power Plan. NTDC, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–328, 2016.
[27] J. Rizvi, “Demystifying Pakistan?s Energy Crisis,” 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Dec-2016].
[28] Spearhead Research, “Burden of power: Why we are in the dark – Spearhead Research – Pakistan,” 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jan-2017].
[29] S. Ejaz Wasti, “Energy,” in Economic Survey of Pakistan 2015-16, 2016th ed., Ministry of Finance - MoF, 2016, pp. 238–277.
[30] “Upcoming Power Projects of IPPs,” 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[31] “Pakistan?s most efficient power plant to be operational in 2017 | Pakistan Today,” 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[32] M.A Zuberi, “A Map Of Upcoming Power Projects In Pakistan Power Sector Future.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jan-2017].
[33] Barbara Wichmann, “The Pros and Cons of Smart Grid Technology,” 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[34] “Rethinking the Electric Grid.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[35] R. Jain, “Smart Grid: Trends in Power Market.”.
[36] Z. Hussain, S. Memon, R. Shah, A. Bhutto, M. Aljawarneh, and Z. Hussain, “Methods and Techniques of Electricity Thieving in Pakistan,” J. Power Energy Eng., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1–10, 2016.
[37] “Theft of electricity,” WekiPedia. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[38] B. Saikiran and R. Hariharan, “Review of methods of power theft in Power System,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., vol. 5, no. 11, 2014.
[39] S. E. Distribution, “Electricity Theft Control with Real-time Billing Framework utilizing Information Communication Technologies.” pp. 1–10, 2013.
[40] “ETHERTEK SOLUTIONS: HOW TO HACK A DIGITAL ELECTRICITY METER.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Dec-2016].
[41] “how to hack electric digital meter in pakistan and cut your electricity bill in half - YouTube.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Dec-2016].
[42] “Stop Power Meter Pakistani Electricity Meter - YouTube.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[43] “Lower your electricity bill with the Kill-A-Watt device - YouTube.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[44] M. Bin Sarfaraz, “Power Theft Detection | Energy Central.” [Online]. Available:
[45] Ingenuity Dias, “Tampering Electricity Meter-Commonly used Tampering Techniques-Science Tips and Tricks | IngenuityDias,” 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Dec-2016].
[46] Jignesh Parmar, “Tampering Methods of Energy Meter | Electrical Notes & Articles,” 2011. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Dec-2016].
[47] Jignesh Parmar, “Total Losses in Power Distribution &; Transmission Lines-Part 1,” 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[48] “Herald: Gridlocked – how power is lost in Pakistan?s distribution lines - Pakistan - DAWN.COM.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Dec-2016].
[49] R. Shoukat, “Pakistan Energy Crisis: An Overview,” 2013.
[50] F. Mahmood, M. Assistant, and S. Mahmood, “Long Run Determinants of Electricity Theft in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis Muhammad Saim Hashmi,” Pakistan J. Soc. Sci., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 599–608, 2015.
[51] F. B. Lewis, “Costly „Throw-Ups?: Electricity Theft and Power Disruptions,” Electr. J., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 118–135, 2015.
[52] “Power sector circular debt surpasses Rs684 billion: IWCCI.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].
[53] “Power sector circular debt surpasses Rs684b.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].
[54] “Energy Sector Projects under CPEC,”, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jan-2017].
[55] Zafar Bhutta, “Why we are in the dark - The Express Tribune.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Jan-2017].
[56] “IG blames loadshedding for Punjab crimes - Pakistan - Dunya News.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Jan-2017].
[57] “Power outages: Energy crisis linked to rising crime in Punjab?s industrial heartland - The Express Tribune.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Jan-2017].
[58] “Attock: Power riots death toll reaches 2 – Pakistan Criminal Records.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Jan-2017].
[59] G. Maaz Mufti, M. Jamil, M. Nawaz, Mobeen-ur-Rehman, S. Zulqadar Hassan, and T. Kamal, “Evaluating the Issues and Challenges in Context of the Energy Crisis of Pakistan,” Indian J. Sci. Technol., vol. 9, no. 36, 2016.
[60] R. Aziz and M. B. Ahmad, “SPECIAL REPORT: Pakistan?s Power Crisis - The Way Forward,” 2015.
[61] M. Anwar and S. Rehman, Eds., “Solutions for Energy Crisis in Pakistan,” in Solutions for Energy Crisis in Pakistan, 2013, pp. 1–258.

Energy System, Electric Power System, Energy Crisis, T&D Loss, NTL Loss, Circular Debt.