The Consequences of cracks formed on the Oil and Gas Pipelines Weld Joints
|International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)||
|© 2017 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2017|
|Authors : Christopher T. Mgonja
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V54P232|
Christopher T. Mgonja "The Consequences of cracks formed on the Oil and Gas Pipelines Weld Joints", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V54(4),223-232 December 2017. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
Weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas (O & G) pipelines. Cracks are the most severe of all weld defects and are unacceptable in most circumstances. A simple existing defect on the pipeline after welding can generate a catastrophic fracture. The major cause of a crack is when internal stresses exceed the strength of the weld metal, the base metal, or both. If undetected, the cracking defects can act as stress concentration sites which lead to premature failure via fatigue, as well as offer favourable sites for hydrogen assisted cracking and stress corrosion cracking. For welded metal products such as deep sea oil and gas transportation pipes, such defects heighten the risk of catastrophic in-service failures. Such failures can lead to devastating environmental, economic, and social damage. Knowing the basics behind why cracks happen, a welder can prevent those cracks from occurring in the first place. Using different literatures, this paper reviews on the consequences of cracks on the oil and gas pipelines weld joints focusing on favourable welding processes for pipeline manufacturing, causes and effects of various types of weld cracks. It further highlights the importance of inspection, maintenance and repair of weld joints cracks. Hence, the knowledge of weld joint cracks mechanisms for any person that deals with pipelines is very important.
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cracks, Oil and Gas, Pipelines, Welding, inspection, maintenance and repair.