A Sustainable Way to Mitigate Ozone Pollution by Reducing Biogenic Vocs Through Landscape Management Programme
|International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)||
|© 2018 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2018|
|Authors : Pallavi Saxena, Chirashree Ghosh
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V56P215|
Pallavi Saxena, Chirashree Ghosh "A Sustainable Way to Mitigate Ozone Pollution by Reducing Biogenic Vocs Through Landscape Management Programme", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V56(2),87-91 February 2018. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
Trees can affect air quality in several ways: ozone pollution, pollutant deposition, temperature reduction, carbon sequestration, and emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Ideally, all tree effects on air quality especially ozone pollution would be included in tree selection to maximize net benefits. This control measure claims reductions for BVOC emissions only. BVOCs were included as an initial step in air quality planning because they were most readily quantified. Reductions were achieved by planting lower-emitting species than would be the case in the absence of the control measure. The Tree BVOC Index (TBI) is an alternative prescriptive approach that provides an estimate of projected and actual emission reductions, gives users a clearly defined target to reach and a method to continuously monitor progress, is completely transparent to users and regulators, and eliminates labeling of tree species, thereby facilitating verification and enforcement in a regulatory environment. A TBI less than or equal to 1.0 informs the user that their tree planting program is on track to meet its goal. In the present study, four tree species were selected viz. Dalbergia sissoo, Butea monosperma, Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica at two sites namely Site I, traffic intersection and Site II, industrial for determination of Tree BVOC index by calculating ratio of future emissions from a proposed or current planting of trees at particular sites annually in a capital city of India, Delhi. The results indicated that Dalbergia sissoo and Butea monosperma calculated Tree BVOC index was found to be 3.22 and 2.11 at Site I and 3.79 and 2.43 at Site II respectively while 0.66 and 0.22 at Site I and 0.69 and 0.22 at Site II in case of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica respectively. Hence, the study concludes that among four selected trees, Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica which have calculated TBI values less than 1 were found to suitable for planting and can be used as in greenbelt development programmes while Dalbergia sissoo and Mangifera indica which have values more than 1 were not recommended for planting especially for mitigating ozone pollution. Hence, Tree BVOC index can be used as a sustainable way to mitigate ozone pollution and can be used for landscape development programmes.
 E.G. McPherson, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, S.E. Maco and Q. Xiao, “Municipal forest benefits and costs in five U.S. cities”, Journal of Forestry, Vol. 103, pp.411-416, 2005.
 A. Guenther, C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, “A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, pp.8873-8892, 1995.
 S. Pressley, B. Lamb, H. Westberg and C. Vogel, “Relationships among canopy scale energy fluxes and isoprene flux derived from long-term, seasonal eddy covariance measurements over a hardwood forest”, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 136, pp.188-202, 2006.
 A. Arneth, R.K. Monson, G. Schurgers, U. Niinemets and P.I. Palmer, “Why are estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes)?”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol.8, pp.4605-4620, 2008.
 R. Grote,“Sensitivity of volatile monoterpene emission to changes in canopy structure: a model-based exercise with a process-based emission model”, New Phytologist Vol. 173, pp.550-561, 2007.
 T. Keenan, U. Niinemets, S. Sabate, C. Gracia, and J. Penuelas, “Process based inventory of isoprenoid emissions from European forests: model comparisons, current knowledge and uncertainties”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 9, pp.4053-4076, 2009.
 U. Niinemets, L. Copolovici and K. Hüve,“High within-canopy variation in isoprene emission potentials in temperate trees: implications for predicting canopy-scale isoprene fluxes”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, pp.G04029, 2010.
 D.E. Millstein and R.A. Harley,“Impact of climate change on photochemical air pollution in southern California”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 9, pp.1561-1583, 2009.
 A.L. Steiner, R.C. Cohen, R.A. Harley, S. Tonse, D.B. Millet, G.W. Schade and A.H. Goldstein,“VOC reactivity in central California: comparing an air quality model to ground-based measurements”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 8, pp.351-368, 2008.
 L.E. Gulden and Z.L. Yang, “Development of species-based, regional emission capacities for simulation of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in land-surface models: an example from Texas, USA”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, pp.1464-1479, 2006.
 K.I. Scott and M.T. Benjamin, “Development of a biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for the SCOS97-NARSTO domain”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37 (Suppl. 2), pp.S39-S49, 2003.
 R.G. Donovan, H.E. Stewart, S.M. Owen, A.R. Mackenzie and C.N. Hewitt, “Development and application of an urban tree air quality score for photochemical pollution episodes using the Birmingham, United Kingdom, area as a case study”, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39, pp.6730-6738, 2005.
 M.T. Benjamin, M. Sudol, L. Bloch and A.M. Winer, “Low-emitting urban forests: a taxonomic methodology for assigning isoprene and monoterpene emission rates”, Atmospheric Environment: Urban Atmospheres, Vol. 30, pp.1437-1452, 1996.
 SMAQMD,“Sacramento Regional 8-hour Ozone Attainment and Reasonable Further Progress Plan”, Appendix C, Proposed ControlMeasures. Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Sacramento, CA, 2008.
 C.K. Varshney and A.P. Singh, “Isoprene emission from Indian trees”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.108(D24), pp.4808, 2003.
 A. Guenther, P. Zimmerman, P. Harley, R. Monson and R. Fall, “Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: Model evaluation and sensitivity analysis”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, pp.12609–12617, 1993.
 P.C. Harley, R.K. Monson and M.T. Lerdau, “Ecological and evolutionary aspects of isoprene emission from plants”, Oecologia, Vol. 118, pp.109–123, 1999
Ozone, BVOC, Tree, Air quality and Mitigation.