Mechanization in Bangladesh: Way of Modernization in Agriculture
|International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)||
|© 2019 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2019|
|Authors : M. A.Hossen
|DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V67I9P212|
MLA Style: M. A.Hossen "Mechanization in Bangladesh: Way of Modernization in Agriculture" International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology 67.9 (2019):69-77.
APA Style:M. A.Hossen. Mechanization in Bangladesh: Way of Modernization in Agriculture International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 67(9),69-77.
Mechanized agriculture is known as mechanize agriculture deal with tools, implements and powered machinery as inputs to increase farm worker productivity greatly mechanizing the work of agriculture. In recent times, powered machinery has replaced many farm jobs once carried out by manual labour. Agriculture modernization is mostly depends on the promotion of agricultural mechanization that helps to boost up the agricultural and food production. It is vital inputs for agricultural crop establishment, protection, harvesting, processing and adding values which have been neglected historically in Bangladesh. Lack of available farm power in agriculture always compromise the timely and faster land cultivation, labor productivity, crop management, post-harvest losses, yield and value addition. Therefore, development of any area in agriculture is understood by the levels of agricultural mechanization. Agricultural mechanization level of an area is identified in terms of kW per hectare, hectare per tractor, number of tractors for 1000 hectare, and hectare per tractor. Agricultural mechanization has been accelerated in Bangladesh in the recent years. Over the last two and half decades, farm power increased significantly in the country. During last 58 years, it has been increased from about 0.24 kW/ha in 1960 to about 1.82 kW/ha in 2018 which is still low compared to the major industrialized countries of Japan, Italy, France and UK. Many factors and constraints are associated in promotion of mechanization level. Lacking of skilled and experienced workforce almost in all levels of manufacturing, repair & maintenance and sales after services, scarcity of qualified and skilled manpower related to design, drawing, reverse engineering and manufacturing process, lack of modern capital machinery at producers’ level and lack of quality and graded materials in production are the major hinders in quality agricultural machinery production and promotion in competitive manner. Type of agricultural machines or required the level of mechanization in any region depends on the socio-economic condition of the people, environmental factors, availability of agricultural labour and technological inputs. Promotional activities (training, demonstration, subsidy on quality machinery); formulates and execute effective short, medium and long terms strategic plan; strengthening capacities on research and development; effective linkage among the different stakeholders; production industries of the selective technologies; appropriate machinery selection, identification and dissemination based on soil, crops and cultures of 88 agro-ecological sub regions; and strengthening standardization played an important roles in promotion of mechanization. Mechanization strategies should be formulated with the specific objectives of studying of soil types, land topography, socio-economic conditions, cropping pattern, average yield, yield potentiality and constraints in each sub regions; present status, potential needs in future marking the priority of different agricultural machinery based on each operation of crop production and processing; region based impact of farm mechanization on yield, production cost, cropping intensity and employment of labor; and present infrastructure facilities and future needs for promotion of farm mechanization status, manufacturing, marketing, after sale services, repair and maintenance facilities, available parts locally etc of agricultural machinery. Government strategies, enhancement of research capacity, effective linkages among the different GOs and NGOs, regional based potential assessment, priority ranking and subsidy on quality machinery, manufacturing capacity building, formation of farmers groups, skilled manpower development, infrastructure reform, ensure sales after service and available spare parts and quality materials are the major approaches to ensure sustainable mechanization as well as sustainable crop production.
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Constraints of mechanization, Appropriate machinery selection, Objectives of mechanization strategy formulation and Available farm power.