Experimental Investigation of Biofuel Gasoline Blends In a PFI Spark-Ignition Engine
How to Cite?
R. Narayanamoorthy, S. Sivaprakasam, P. Sivaraj, "Experimental Investigation of Biofuel Gasoline Blends In a PFI Spark-Ignition Engine," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 101-108, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V69I5P215
To reduce the usage of gasoline extracted from fossil fuel resources, there is a need for a sustainable alternative fuel that has the potential to replace gasoline. In this work, the oil extracted from the leaves of Basil oil (BO), which gives a low cetane number, was investigated in the port fuel injection installed spark-ignition engine to study its feasibility as a replacement for gasoline fuel. Initially, the basil oil was taken to GC_MS and FTIR analysis to study the chemical compounds and types of chemical bonds present in it. Then three BO blends were prepared by blending BO in the ratio of 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70 with gasoline. The blends were undergone a phase separation test and the fuel properties of sole BO and its blends were measured. The blended BO fuels were tested experimentally to find out their impact on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of the engine. The results show that the performance of the BO blends is lesser than that of gasoline. At maximum engine brake power, the BTE of BO10 (Basil oil 10% + Gasoline 90%) is 25.08% which is 1.74% lesser than the BTE given by gasoline. The NOx emission of BO10 is 318 ppm which is about 6.4% lesser than gasoline. The levels of CO and HC emissions are increased with an increase in the blending ratio of BO in the gasoline. Though the BO blend performance is not equivalent to that of gasoline, a suitable engine modification can improve its performance.
Biofuel, Performance, Gasoline, Basil oil, Blends, emissions
 Manoj Babu, C.G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, V. Edwin Geo, J. Sasikala, J.S. Femilda Josephin, D. Das, Analysis of performance, emission, combustion and endoscopic visualization of micro-arc oxidation piston coated SI engine fuelled with low carbon biofuel blends, Fuel. 285 (2021) 119189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119189.
 P. Prabhakaran, C.G. Saravanan, R. Vallinayagam, M. Vikneswaran, N. Muthukumaran, K. Ashok, Investigation of swirl induced piston on the engine characteristics of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine, Fuel. 279(2020) 118503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118503
 Urdhwareshe R. The Automotive Research Association of India, 2 Wheeler Vehicles : BS VI, (2018) 62.
 M. Loganathana, A.Anbarasu. , V.M. Madhavan, K. Arun Balasubramanian, V. Thanigaivelan, M. Vikneswaran, Investigation on the effect of diethyl ether with hydrogen-enriched cashew nut shell (CNS) biodiesel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine, Fuel. 277(2020) 118165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118165.
 C. Nandakumar, V. Raman, C.G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, S. Prasanna Raj Yadav, M. Thirunavukkarasu, Effect of nozzle hole geometry on the operation of kapok biodiesel in a diesel engine, Fuel. 276(2020) 118114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118114.
 Re?ito?lu2015_Article_ThePollutantEmissionsFromDiese.pdf, (2015).
 F.P. Sanchez, A. Bandivadekar, J. German, Estimated cost of emission reduction technologies for LDVs, Int. Counc. Clean Transp. (2012) 1–136.
 PTI agency, Drop in petrol, diesel price gap to fuel customers’ shift towards petrol, CNG cars: ICRA, Econ. Times.,https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/oil-and-gas/drop-in-petrol-diesel-price-gap-to-fuel-customers-shift-towards-petrol-cng-cars-icra/76854112., (2020).
 V. Ravikumar, D. Senthilkumar, C.G. Saravanan, V. Edwin Geo, M. Vikneswaran, C. Solaimuthu, J.S. Femilda Josephin, Study on the effect of 2-butoxyethanol as an additive on the combustion flame, performance and emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine, Fuel. 285(2021) 119187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119187.
 A.D. Sagar, Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 15(1995) 241–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-9255(95)91707-F.
 G. Archer, T. Earl, E. Bannon, J. Poliscanova, N. Muzi, S. Alexandridou, CO2 Emissions From Cars: The facts, Transp.Environ.53(2018). https://www.dbresearch.de/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000346332/CO2+emissions+from+cars:+Regul ation+via+EU+Emissio.pdf.
 S. Thiruvenkatachari, C.G. Saravanan, V. Edwin Geo, M. Vikneswaran, R. Udayakumar, F. Aloui, Experimental investigations on the production and testing of azolla methyl esters from Azolla microphylla in a compression ignition engine, Fuel. (2020119448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119448.
 C. Bae, J. Kim, Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(2017) 3389–3413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2016.09.009.
 O.I. Awad, R. Mamat, O.M. Ali, N.A.C. Sidik, T. Yusaf, K. Kadirgama, M. Kettner, Alcohol and ether as alternative fuels in spark ignition engine: A review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 82(2018) 2586–2605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.074.
 P. Sakthivel, K.A. Subramanian, R. Mathai, Comparative studies on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with gasoline and 30% ethanol-gasoline blend using chassis dynamometer, Appl. Therm. Eng. 146(2019) 726–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.10.035.
 P.P. Morajkar, G.D.J. Guerrero Penã, A. Raj, M. Elkadi, R.K. Rahman, A. V. Salkar, A. Pillay, T. Anjana, M.S. Cha, Effects of Camphor Oil Addition to Diesel on the Nanostructures and Oxidative Reactivity of Combustion-Generated Soot, Energy and Fuels. 33(2019) 12852–12864. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b03390.
 A. Manoj Babu, C.G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, V. Edwin Jeo, J. Sasikala, Visualization of in-cylinder combustion using endoscope in spark ignition engine fueled with pine oil blended gasoline, Fuel. 263(2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116707.
 R. Vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj, N. Naser, W.L. Roberts, R.W. Dibble, S.M. Sarathy, Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline, Fuel. 187 (2017) 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.09.034.
 A. Biswal, R. Kale, G.R. Teja, S. Banerjee, P. Kolhe, S. Balusamy, An experimental and kinetic modeling study of gasoline/lemon peel oil blends for PFI engine, Fuel. 267 (2020)117189. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117189.
 A. Velavan, C.G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran, J. Sasikala, Visualization of in-cylinder combustion flame and evaluation of engine characteristics of MPFI engine fueled by lemon peel oil blended gasoline, Fuel. 263(2020) 116728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116728.
 G. Kasiraman, B. Nagalingam, M. Balakrishnan, Performance, emission and combustion improvements in a direct injection diesel engine using cashew nut shell oil as fuel with camphor oil blending, Energy. 47(2012) 116–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.09.022.
 V.E. Geo, D.J. Godwin, S. Thiyagarajan, C.G. Saravanan, F. Aloui, Effect of higher and lower order alcohol blending with gasoline on performance , emission and combustion characteristics of SI engine, Fuel. 256(2019) 115806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115806.
 M. Vikneswaran, C.G. Saravanan, J. Sasikala, Endoscopic visualization of combustion flame to study the effect of 1,4-dioxane as an additive on the spatial flame characteristics of spark ignition engine, Fuel. 276(2020) 118072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118072.
 D. Jesu Godwin, V. Edwin Geo, S. Thiyagarajan, M. Leenus Jesu Martin, T. Maiyalagan, C.G. Saravanan, F. Aloui, Effect of hydroxyl (OH) group position in alcohol on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of SI engine, Energy Convers. Manag. 189(2019) 195–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.03.063.
 R. Narayanamoorthy, S. Sivaprakasam, P. Sivaraj, Experimental Analysis of Engine Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engine Fuelled By Low Cetane Fuel, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology. 68(2020) 58-65. doi:10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V68I12P211.