Design and Fabrication of a PC-Based 3 Axis CNC Milling Machine

Design and Fabrication of a PC-Based 3 Axis CNC Milling Machine

© 2021 by IJETT Journal
Volume-69 Issue-9
Year of Publication : 2021
Authors : Abd Rahman Z, Mohamed S.B, Zulkifli A.R, Kasim M.S, W.N.F.Mohamad
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V69I9P201

How to Cite?

Abd Rahman Z, Mohamed S.B, Zulkifli A.R, Kasim M.S, W.N.F.Mohamad, "Design and Fabrication of a PC-Based 3 Axis CNC Milling Machine," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 1-13, 2021. Crossref,

The machine manufacturing industry usually monopolizes CNC-based machine manufacturing technology. These machine tools have world-class manufacturer control systems. Simultaneously, hobbyists, amateurs, and semi-professionals created many solutions for small-scale and low-cost CNC machines. This paper discusses processes for designing and developing a PCbased 3-axis CNC milling machine to meet small-scale and cost-effective machine manufacturing requirements. The following is a review of CNC milling machines built based on the capabilities of similar-sized machines reviewed previously. The milling machine`s design is based on a vertical position with a close frame structure. It is assembled with aluminum extrusion profiles to achieve a rigid frame structure. This low cost is achieved by using low-cost offthe- shelf hardware modules that can reduce maintenance costs. The Mach4 software that acts as a PC-based controller communicates G-codes to control the machine. The machining test revealed that the UHMW-PE sample could be cut with different geometric shapes by machining a workpiece under a specific tool path. This machine design shows manufacturing efficiency and flexibility, allowing small facilities to reduce capital costs. Although not intended for mass production or precise machining, this machine can effectively replace expensive commercial CNC machines.

PC-Based, CNC, Milling Machine, Small-Scale, Low-Cost.

[1] Z. Ibrahim, S.B. Mohamed, M. Minhat, A.S. Mohamed, M.R. Musanih, Z. Abd Rahman, and Z.I. Rizman, Reason Maintenance in Product Modelling via Open Source CAD System, Int. Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering & Information Technology. 6(6) (2016) 990-996.
[2] S. B. Mohamed, D. J. Petty, D. K. Harrison, and R. Rigby, A cell management system to support robotic assembly, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 18(8) (2001) 598-604.
[3] D. Huo and K. Cheng, Design of a 5-Axis Ultraprecision Micro Milling Machine – UltraMill: Part 1: Holistic Design Approach, Design Considerations and Specifications, Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Engineering. (2018) 1-25.
[4] P. N. Patel, S. D. Pavagadhi, and S. G. Acharya, Design and Development of Portable 3-Axis CNC Router Machine, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 6(3) (2019) 1452- 1455.
[5] D. Gupta and P. K. Sahu, Design Evaluation Using CAE Tools for a 3- Axis Vertical Milling Machine for Sculptured Surface Machining, International Journal Of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology. 7(11) (2018) 145-152.
[6] S. V Deshpande, P. U. Karthik, N. K. D, V. Kumar, and K. S. Badrinaryan, Design and Fabrication of 3-Axis CNC Milling Machine, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science. 6(4) (2018) 34-38.
[7] M.Bhavani, V.Jerome, P. L. Raja, B.Vignesh, and D.Vignesh, Design, and Implementation of CNC Router, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 6(3) (2017) 5037-5043.
[8] K. Ekkachai, U. Komin, W. Chaopramualkul, A. Tantaworrasilp, and P. K. P. Seekhao, Design and Development of An Open Architecture CNC Controller for Milling Machine Retrofitting, in ICCAS-SICE. (2009).
[9] M. P. H. Dahake and M. N. R. Saharkar, Prototype Development of Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM : A Review, International Journal of Software & Hardware Research in Engineering. 2(11) (2014) 52-56.
[10] A. N. M. Amanullah, Murshiduzzaman, T. Saleh, and R. Khan, Design and Development of a Hybrid Machine Combining Rapid Prototyping and CNC Milling Operation, Procedia Engineering. 184 (2017) 163- 170.
[11] C. Brecher, R. Klar, and C. Wenzel, Development of a Dynamic High Precision Miniature Milling Machine, International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture. (2007) 3-6.
[12] B. Jayachandraiah, O. V. Krishna, P. A. Khan, and R. A. Reddy, Fabrication of Low-Cost 3-Axis CNC Router, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 3(6) (2014) 1-10.
[13] Manjunatha CJ, Manjunath K and Suresha P., Design & Development of Portable Milling Machine, International Journal of Innovation in Engineering, Research, and Technology. (2015) 1-6.
[14] R. K. H. Al Habsi and G. R. Rameshkumar, Design and Fabrication of 3-Axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Laser Cutter, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering. 7(5) (2016) 7- 16.
[15] P. Boral, T. Nieszporek, and R. Go??bski, The Welded CNC Machine Tool Frame, MATEC Web of Conferences. 1003(157) (2018) 1-8.
[16] P. Boral, The Design of the CNC Milling Machine, MATEC Web of Conferences. 1003(254) (2019) 1-10.
[17] B. S. Kim, S. K. Ro, and J. K. Park, Development of a 3-Axis Desktop Milling Machine and a CNC System Using Advanced Modern Control Algorithms, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. 11(1) (2010) 39-47.
[18] S. Darvekar, A. B. K. Rao, and K. Ramji, A Study on Machining Capability of a 2-Dof PKM-Based Milling Machine, Procedia Engineering. 64 (2013) 757-766.
[19] A. Max, V. Lašová, and Š. Pušman, Enhancement of Teaching Design of CNC Milling Machines, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 176 (2015) 571–577.
[20] A. B. MohdHadzley, M. H. Samsudin, M. N. Zamri, R. I. Raja Abdullah, M. S. Kasim, and A. Abdullah, Development of Three-Axis Mini Milling Machine for Small Scale Production, Applied Mechanics and Materials. 761 (2015) 273–276.
[21] R. Basniak and M. F. Catapan, Design of a PCB Milling Machine, ABCM Symposium Series in Mechatronics Section VIII - Sensors & Actuators. 5 (2006) 1339-1348.
[22] Nikita R. Sahakar and G. M. Dhote, Prototype Development of Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 4(8) (2015) 1078-1083.
[23] H. Rabe, The Design of a CNC Mill for Product Prototyping, Master dissertation, Padnos School of Engineering, Grand Valley State University. (2003).
[24] W. Qin, Design and Analysis of a Small-Scale Cost-Effective CNC Milling Machine, Master dissertation, Graduate College, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (2013).
[25] T. S. Darshan, K. M. Mohanambica, and H. Basavaraju, Design and Controlling of Retrofitted 4 Axes Milling Machine for Industrial Applications, International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 3(5) (2018) 668-673.
[26] M. A. Othman, Z. Jamaludin, M. Minhat, and M. A. U. Patwari, Design and Development of a 3-Axis Vertical Milling Machine Control Logic Architecture Using IEC 61499 Function Block, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 14(1) (2020) 61-74.
[27] P. W. Lin, Design and Fabrication of a Small-Scale CNC Milling Machine, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 9(8) (2018) 1204-1209.
[28] A. Khan, A. K. Shukla, and A. Singh, Design and Fabrication of 3- Axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling Machine, International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts. 6(2) (2018) 1347-1353.
[29] Sulaiman, T. M. S. T., Mohamed, S. B., Minhat, M., Mohamed, A. S., & Mohamed, A. R., Integrated Interface Development Environment using STEP Universal Data Structure, International Journal of Engineering & Technology. 7 (2.15) (2018) 27-29.
[30] S. B. Mohamed, M. Minhat, T. M. S. TgSulaiman, M. S. M. Kasim, A. S. Mohamed, A. R. Mohamed and J. Ismail, Integrated interface system for tool path generation of STEP file, AIP Conference Proceedings. 2129 (2019).
[31] Tengku Sulaiman, T. M. S., Mohamed, S. B., Minhat, M., Mohamed, A. S., Mohamed, A. R., & Yusof, S. N. A., File and PC-Based CNC Controller using Integrated Interface System (I2S), Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 70(1) (2020) 1–8.
[32] Md Sharizam, M. A. R., Mohamed, S. B., Sulaiman, T. M. S. T., Abd Rahman, Z., & Awang, R., Development of the PC-based Integrated Interface System of STEP file for CNC Machining Application: Circular Features, International Journal of Integrated Engineering. 12(7) (2020) 195-203.
[33] Abd Rahman, Z., Mohamed, S.B., Kasim, M.S., Ariffïn, M. K. A. and Zulkifli, A.R., The Development of Methodology for Tool Path Generation Using STEP Data Model Based on ISO 6983, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology. 69(6) (2021) 144-153.