Design And Realization of An Innovative Adapter For The Visualization And Direct Exploitation of Endoscopy Images On Smartphones
How to Cite?
Yassine Baskoun, Salah Dine Qanadli, Moha Arouch, Mohamed Taouzari, "Design And Realization of An Innovative Adapter For The Visualization And Direct Exploitation of Endoscopy Images On Smartphones," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 200-203, 2021. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V69I10P225
In this study, a novel design of smartphone endoscope adapter is introduced. The different parts of the proposed adapter are firstly designed in consideration of the use of flashlight smartphones as the light source in order to securely fit the endoscope with the smartphone. The entire system combining Smartphone and endoscope via this adapter is then designed in 3D. As a result, Simulation shows strong results in terms of fitting this system. The prototype of the proposed adapter is printed by the 3D printer and is then tested by combining Karl Storz endoscope of 0°, 4mm, 50mm, and iPhone 6s. The inner hand can be considered as dark interior as similar of the nose, ear, etc., is chosen to make this test, in which the significant photo with acceptable color and resolution is obtained. It can be concluded that this system provides a good benefit of its use in continuous development countries (LMICs) and in difficult times such as COVID-19 so that the health care providers can easily share these photos between specialists themselves or and with the patient through the internet especially for the accuracy treatment.
Smartphone; flashlight; camera; endoscopy; telemedicine; Mhealth; adapter; low- and middle-income countries; 3D printing; COVID-19.
 G. Zada, C. Liu, and M. L. J. Apuzzo, through the looking glass’: Optical physics, issues, and the evolution of neuroendoscopy, World Neurosurg., 79(2) SUPPL., (2013) S3–S13.
 T. E. Linder, D. Simmen, and S. E. Stool, Revolutionary Inventions in the 20th cen-tury the history ofendoscopy, Arch. Otolaryngol. - Head Neck Surg., 123(11) (1997) 1161–1163.
 A. Tabaee, P. E. Johnson, and V. K. Anand, Office-Based Digital Video Endoscopy in Otolaryngology, Laryngoscope, 116(8) (2006) 1523–1525.
 E. R. Dorsey and E. J. Topol, State of Telehealth, N. Engl. J. Med., 375(2) (2016) 154–161.
 M. S. M Deris et al., Challenges in Providing Access to Health Facilities for Rural Citizens in Developing Countries, Int. J. Eng. Trends Technol., 69(8) (2021) 36–40.
 M. M. C. J. Vera-domínguez, M. M. C. L. E. Otero-hernández, M. C. Mayor, and E. M. Turrubiates-calcáneo, Telemedicina y teleotorrinolaringología: Un proyecto factible para el Servicio de Sanidad Militar en México, Rev. Sanid. Milit., 64(2) (2010) 79–83.
 J. R. Rodriguez-Feliz and M. Z. Roth, The Mobile Technology Era, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 130(6) (2012) 1395–1397.
 E. Agu et al., The smartphone as a medical device: Assessing enablers, benefits and challenges, 2013 IEEE Int. Conf. Sensing, Commun. Networking, SECON 2013, (2013) 76–80.
 A. George, M. Prince, and C. Coulson, The ‘endoscope-i’: A mobile solution for en-doscopy in otolaryngology, Clin. Otolaryngol., 38(1) (2013) 104–106.
 N. Mistry, C. Coulson, and A. George, Endoscope-I: an Innovation in Mobile Endo-scopic Technology Transforming the Delivery of Patient Care in Otolaryngology, Expert Rev. Med. Devices, 14(11) (2017) 913–918.
 A. Langley and G. Mar Fan, Teaching fibreoptic bronchoscopy using smart phones, Anaesthesia, 69(7) (2014) 793–794.
 M. M. Çelikoyar and O. T. Aktas, Endoscopy in otolary M. M. Çelikoyar and O. T. Aktas, ‘Endoscopy in otolaryngology utilising smartphone as the capturing device,’ J. Vis. Commun. Med., 0(0) (2018) 1–4. ngology utilising smartphone as the cap-turing device, J. Vis. Commun. Med., 0(0) (2018) 1–4.
 W. Sohn et al., Endockscope: Using mobile technology to create global point of ser-vice endoscopy, J. Endourol., 27(9) (2013) 1154–1160.
 R. Dutta et al., Clinical Comparison of Conventional and Mobile Endockscope Vid-eocystoscopy Using an Air or Fluid Medium, J. Endourol., 31(6) (2017) 593–597.
 C. Tse, R. M. Patel, R. Yoon, Z. Okhunov, J. Landman, and R. V Clayman, The En-dockscope Using Next Generation Smartphones : ‘ A Global Opportunity ’ Renai Yoon : Corresponding author :, (2018) 1–18.
 LENS KIT. [Online]. Available: https://camkix.com/. [Accessed: 18-Feb-2021].
 J. A. Brant, K. Leahy, and N. Mirza, Diagnostic utility of flexible fiberoptic naso-pharyngolaryngoscopy recorded onto a smartphone: A pilot study, World J. Otorhino-laryngol. - Head Neck Surg., 4(2) (2018) 135–139.
 S. E. Maurrasse, T. W. Schwanke, and A. Tabaee, Smartphone capture of flexible laryngoscopy: Optics, subsite visualization, and patient satisfaction, Laryngoscope, 129(9) (2019) 2147–2152.
 K. N. Lozada, K. Morton, K. Stepan, J. Capo, and R. L. Chai, The clinical impact of bedside fiberoptic laryngoscopic recording on a tertiary consult service, Laryngoscope, 128(4) (2018) 818–822.
 A. E. Quimby, S. Kohlert, L. Caulley, and M. Bromwich, Smartphone adapters for flexible Nasolaryngoscopy: A systematic review, J. Otolaryngol. - Head Neck Surg., 47(1) (2018) 1–7.
 H. Liu, S. Akiki, N. J. Barrowman, and M. Bromwich, Mobile Endoscopy vs Video Tower: A Prospective Comparison of Video Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy, Otolaryn-gol. - Head Neck Surg. (United States), 155(4) (2016) 575–580.
 M. Mandel et al., Smartphone-assisted minimally invasive neurosurgery, J. Neuro-surg., 130(1) (2019) 90–98.
 I. Chatzipapas, N. Kathopoulis, A. Protopapas, and D. Loutradis, Using a Mobile Smartphone to Perform Laparoscopy, J. Minim. Invasive Gynecol., 25(5) (2018) 912–915.
 R. Yulzari, S. Bretler, Y. Avraham, A. Sharabi-Nov, E. Even-Tov, and P. Gilbey, Mobile Technology-Based Real-Time Teleotolaryngology Care Facilitated by a Nonoto-laryngologist Physician in an Adult Population, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 127(1) (2018) 46–50.
 Y. F. Liu et al., A Prospective Assessment of Nasopharyngolaryngoscope Recording Adaptor Use in Residency Training, Otolaryngol. - Head Neck Surg. (United States), 155(4) (2016) 710–713.
 J. H. I. Ha and S. R. Sagili, Smartphone adaptor use for nasal endoscopy, Eye, 33(5) (2019) 854–855.
 RVA Smart-Clamp. [Online]. Available: https://rvasynergies.co.uk/industrial-inspection/accessories/59-rvasmart- clamp. [Accessed: 18-Feb-2021].
 P. Neelapala, A. S. Duvvi, and B. N. Kumar, How We Do It : A DIY Smart Phone based, Bengal J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 25(3) (2017) 2–5.
 H. Park et al., Clinical Application of Endoscopy Using Smartphone, (2016) 103–111.
 T. D. Milner, J. Montgomery, and M. Stewart, Flexible nasendoscopy: the use of smartphones as an immediate light source, Clin. Otolaryngol., 43(1) (2018) 399–400.
 V. Deshmukh and S. Iyer, Use of smartphone flashlight in bronchoscopy and thora-coscopy, J. Bronchol. Interv. Pulmonol., 26(1) (2019) E1–E2.
 J. R. Davidson, K. Ford, N. Ade-Ajayi, and A. Paul, Improvise, Adapt, Overcome: mobile phone LED used as a light source for cystoscopy and resection of posterior urethral valves in a low-cost setting, J. Pediatr. Urol., 15(1) (2019) 85–86.
 A. Avidan, R. Shaylor, and P. D. Levin, Smartphone Assisted Laryngoscopy, Anesth. Analg., 117(5) (2013) 1262–1263.
 J. J. Butler, S. F. White, C. W. M. Myint, and M. W. Groves, The Feasibility of Uti-lizing Smartphone Flashlights as an Alternative Endoscopic Light Source in Emergency Situations, Ear, Nose Throat J., (2019).
 A. Ray, Bharath, S. Sinha, and S. S. Paul, A smartphone comes to the rescue during tracheostomy, Crit. Care, 23(1) (2019) 25–26.
 Y. Baskoun, M. El Alami, S. D. Qanadli, M. Arouch, and M. Taouzari, An innova-tive adapter to use smartphone flashlight as a light source for endoscopy in emergency and lmics, Int. J. Emerg. Trends Eng. Res., 8(3) (2020) 808–812.
 Y. Guo, K. Kshatri, E. D. Matsumoto, and A. Kapoor, Expert and Crowdsourced Evaluation of Image Quality From a Novel Endoscopy Phone Light Adapter, Urology, (2020) 1–5.
 M. TAOUZARI, M. AROUCH, Y. BASKOUN, A. HRAIBA, A. MOUHSEN, and H. FIHR IFASSI, Adaptateur ajustable avec les smartphones et les cameras numeriques pour les applications endoscope et biomedicale, MA 37682 A1, (2016).
 Y. Baskoun, S. D. Qanadli, M. Arouch, M. Taouzari, M. Elalami, and A. Hraiba, Development of a New Diagnostic Tool in the Field of Endoscopy and Telemedicine Ap-plications, in Advanced Intelligent Systems for Sustainable Development (AI2SD’2018), (2019) 168–173.