Air Quality Analysis In Pasco Peru Using Remote Sensing

Air Quality Analysis In Pasco Peru Using Remote Sensing

© 2021 by IJETT Journal
Volume-69 Issue-12
Year of Publication : 2021
Authors : Natalia I. Vargas-Cuentas, Sebastian J. Ramos-Cosi, Avid Roman-Gonzalez
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V69I12P205

How to Cite?

Natalia I. Vargas-Cuentas, Sebastian J. Ramos-Cosi, Avid Roman-Gonzalez, "Air Quality Analysis In Pasco Peru Using Remote Sensing," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 30-38, 2021. Crossref,

Air pollution has an important impact on health since it can cause health problems related to heart or lung diseases. In 2016 according to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in nine deaths worldwide was related to air pollution. In Peru, several areas are affected by air pollution. For example, the Pasco department is affected by different sources of air pollution. Considering this problem, remote sensing is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution. In this sense, the present study seeks to analyze the air quality in Pasco extracting the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and the particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter () from the aerosol satellite products of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is on board of Terra satellite. These two parameters were extracted from 14 data sets of the study area in a period of analysis from 2019 until the first semester of 2021. Calculating the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), it was found that 57.14% of the data sets present an average value of AOD greater than the typical atmospheric values, between 0.1 and 0.15. Analyzing the maximum values, three months of 2020 show high concentrations: August presents a maximum value of 105.555 ?g/m3, September presents a maximum value of 112.347 ?g/m3, and November presents a maximum value of 105.555 ?g/m3. Finally, Air Quality Index (AQI) was calculated from each data set; it was found that 42.86% corresponds to the category of Unhealthy.

Air pollution, AOD PM2.5, MODIS, Terra satellite, air quality index, AQI

[1] World Health Organization, Ambient Air Quality and Health, (2018). (accessed Jul. 08, 2021).
[2] World Health Organization, Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. World Health Organization, (2016).
[3] Pan American Health Organization, Calidad del aire (accessed Jul. 09, 2021).
[4] World Health Organization Europe, Air Quality Guidelines Global Update (2005). (2006).
[5] DIGESA, Monitoreo de calidad del aire en Cerro de PAsco Cerro de Pasco, (2009). Accessed: Jul. 09, 2021. [Online]. Available: JULIO 2009.pdf.
[6] F. Bianchini, Featured: Cerro de Pasco The Thech Awards, (2008). (accessed Jul. 09, 2021).
[7] F. Bianchini and L. Grassi, Estudios en poblaciones afectadas por metales pesados en Pasco Cerro de Pasco, (2018). Accessed: Jul. 09, 2021). [Online]. Available:
[8] M. G. Luna, J. V. Gonzalez, S. T. Munoz, and L. C. B. Ceron, Spatial and temporal evaluation of PM10 and PM2.5 in Colombia using satellite information (CAMS, MODIS-AOD) and surface air quality measurements in 2019 Congreso Colombiano y Conferencia Internacional de Calidad de Aire y Salud Pública (CASP), (2019) 1–5, doi: 10.1109/CASAP48673.2019.9364071.
[9] A. Soleimany, R. Grubliauskas, and V. Šerevi?ien?, Application of satellite data and GIS services for studying air pollutants in Lithuania (case study: Kaunas city) Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., 14(3) (2021) 411–429, , doi: 10.1007/s11869-020-00946-z.
[10] A. K. Ranjan, A. K. Patra, and A. K. Gorai, Effect of lockdown due to SARS COVID-19 on aerosol optical depth (AOD) over urban and mining regions in India Sci. Total Environ., 745 (2020) 141024, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141024.
[11] Victoria, C., & Estevan, R., Comportamiento de los aerosoles atmosféricos en el Observatorio de Huancayo durante los eventos de quema de biomasa del año 2019. Revista de Investigación de Física, 24(1) (2021) 40-54.
[12] Gobernación Regional Pasco, PLAN DE GOBIERNO REGIONAL DE PASCO 2019 - 2022 Cerro de Pasco, (2018). Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[13] Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Estado de la Población Peruana (2015). Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[14] DIGESA, Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire en Cerro de Pasco Cerro de Pasco, (2008). Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[15] La República, Cerro de Pasco, entre el polvo y el mineral (2017). [Online] Available: Accessed: Jan. 25, 2021.
[16] Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Principales Unidades Mineras en Producción Perú, (2019). Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[17] Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Registro Integral de formalización Minera - Pasco Cerro de Pasco, (2021). Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[18] Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Database Principales Unidades Mineras en Producción - (2019). [Online]. Available: Accessed: Jul. 28, 2021.
[19] E. G. Robles Morales, A. M. Medina Escudero, and C. S. Medina Escudero, La contaminación del aire por el material particulado y su relación con las enfermedades de tipo respiratorio en la población de Cerro de Pasco (2010 y 2016) Ind. Data, 22(1) (2019) 173–186, doi: 10.15381/idata.v22i1.16533
[20] H. Sosa Santiago, La Contaminación de Cerro de Pasco, Aug. (2005). (accessed Jul. 10, 2021).
[21] P. A. Poma, Intoxicación por plomo en humanos An. la Fac. Med., 69(2) (2008) 120–126, Accessed: Jul. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[22] T. S. Pagano and R. M. Durham, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Sens. Syst. Early Earth Obs. Syst. Platforms, 1939 (1993) 2–17, doi: 10.1117/12.152835.
[23] NASA, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Specifications MODIS Web. (accessed Jul. 10, 2021).
[24] R. Levy, S. Matoo, and C. Hsu, MODIS Atmosphere: L2 Aerosol Product NASA MODIS Adapt. Process. Syst., (2015), doi:
[25] Bilal, M., Qiu, Z., Campbell, J. R., Spak, S. N., Shen, X., & Nazeer, M., A new MODIS C6 Dark Target and Deep Blue merged aerosol product on a 3 km spatial grid. Remote Sensing, 10(3) (2018) 463.
[26] Levy, R. C., Remer, L. A., Kleidman, R. G., Mattoo, S., Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., et al., Global evaluation of the Collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 10 (2010) 14815–14873.
[27] Hubanks, P., Chu, A., Ridgway, B., Strabala, K., Platnick, S., Mattoo, S., et al. (2012). MODIS atmosphere QA plan for Collection 005 and 051 (includes cirrus flag & high cloud flag (06_CT) clarification, deep blue aerosol update, aerosol over the land update, water vapor and atmosphere profile update, changes to MOD35 QA bit field documentation) version 3(10) (2013).
[28] Zhang, X., Tan, S. C., Shi, G. Y., & Wang, H., Improvement of MODIS cloud mask over severely polluted eastern China. Science of The Total Environment, 654 (2019) 345-355.
[29] Levy, R. C., Remer, L. A., Mattoo, S., Vermote, E. F., & Kaufman, Y. J., Second?generation operational algorithm: Retrieval of aerosol properties over land from inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spectral reflectance. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D13 (2007)), doi:10.1029/2006JD007811.
[30] Remer, L.A., Wald, A.E., Kaufman, Y.J.,. Angular and seasonal variation of spectral surface reflectance ratios: implications for the remote sensing of aerosol over land. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 39 (2001) 275–283.
[31] Remer, L. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Tanre, D., Mattoo, S., Chu, D. A., ´ Martins, J. V., Li, R. R., Ichoku, C., Levy, R. C., Kleidman, R. G., Eck, T. F., Vermote, E., and Holben, B. N.: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation, J. Atmos. Sci., 62 (2005) 947–973.
[32] Wei, J., Li, Z., Peng, Y., & Sun, L., MODIS Collection 6.1 aerosol optical depth products over land and ocean: validation and comparison. Atmospheric Environment, 201 (2019) 428-440.
[33] Chu Y, Liu Y, Li X, Liu Z, Lu H, Lu Y, Mao Z, Chen X, Li N, Ren M, Liu F, Tian L, Zhu Z, Xiang H., A review on predicting ground PM2.5 concentration using satellite aerosol optical depth. Atmosphere 7(10) (2016) 129.
[34] Zhang, H., Hoff, R. M., & Engel-Cox, J. A., The relation between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth and PM2. 5 over the United States: a geographical comparison by US Environmental Protection Agency regions. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(11) (2009) 1358-1369.
[35] Air Now, Air Quality Index (AQI) Basics (2021). [Online]. Available: Accessed: May. 15, 2021.
[36] GOES-R, Aerosol Optical Depth – Quick Guide (2018). [Online]. Accessed: Jun. 24, 2021. Available:
[37] Estevan, R., Martínez-Castro, D., Suarez-Salas, L., Moya, A., Silva Vidal, Y., Mediciones de aerosoles con un fotómetro solar AERONET en el Observatorio de Huancayo, Perú. Boletín científico El Niño, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, 7 Nº 03. (2020) 4-11.