Coal Mine Overburden As Resource Material For Making Brick

Coal Mine Overburden As Resource Material For Making Brick

© 2022 by IJETT Journal
Volume-70 Issue-1
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : A. S. Rathore, Manoj Pradhan, S. V. Deo, A. K. Dash
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I1P213

How to Cite?

A. S. Rathore, Manoj Pradhan, S. V. Deo, A. K. Dash, "Coal Mine Overburden As Resource Material For Making Brick," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 118-125, 2022. Crossref,

The coal mine`s overburden (CMOB) waste rock consists mainly of sandstone and shale. Among these two, sandstone predominates. Sandstone found with coal seam is generally argillaceous, and hence sand and cementing materials, which are clay minerals, can be easily segregated by simple crushing and washing. An attempt to utilize CMOB clay separated from overburden is made. Three types of mixes of sand and clay are used for the preparation of compressed stabilized earth brick (CSEB) specimens by varying clay and sand percentages. Tests were conducted on these bricks for determining the important parameters influencing the quality of brick viz. dry density, compressive strength both dry and wet, water absorption, and weathering tests.
The CSEB brick specimens were prepared with pure CMOB clay and stabilized with 8% and 10% Portland cement. The average density of the CSEB specimens fabricated with different mixes is found to vary between 1705 kg/m3 to 2142 kg/m3, respectively. Due to the poor texture of CMOB clay, the water absorption and weight loss due to alternate wetting and drying of the brick were found very high. The texture of CMOB clay is improved for the production of CSEBs, by blending it with 57% of CMOB sand. As the texture of the CMOB clay is improved, both the dry and wet compressive strength of the CSEB specimens also improved significantly. The water absorption of the specimens prepared with Clay:Silt: Sand ratios of 22:60:18 and 19:53:28 exceeded the limit prescribed in the code, whereas the water absorption of the specimen prepared with Clay:Silt: Sand ratio of 09:26:65 is found well within the limit. The tests also exhibited that the weight loss due to abrasion from the wire brush significantly reduced with improvement in the texture of the soil mixes.

Compressed stabilized earth brick (CSEB), coal mines overburden (CMOB), mine waste utilization.

[1] Adam, E.A., Agib, A.R.A., Compressed Stabilised Earth Block Manufacture in Sudan; Printed by Graphoprint for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNESCO: Paris, France (2001).
[2] Auroville Earth Institute Retrieved on 15/10/2020 from h_block_en.php e/uploaded_pics/cseb.pdf.
[3] Das R & Choudhary I, Waste Management in Mining Industries, Indian J.Sci.Res. 4(2) (2013) 139-142.
[4] Dash, A. K., Analysis of Accidents due to Slope Failure in Indian Opencast Coal Mines Current Science, 117(2) (2019) 304-308.
[5] Garg A A, Yalawar A, KamathA , Vinay J., Effect Of Varying Cement Proportions On Properties Of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB) - A Sustainable Low-Cost Housing Material ICSCI 2014 © ASCE India Section, Oct 17 – 18, 2014, Hitex, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, (2014) 1000-1018.
[6] Guillaud, H., Compressed earth blocks: Manual of design and construction. coordination: Titane Galer (1995).
[7] Ipinge L. I., Durability of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks, M Sc dissertation submitted Faculty of Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa (2012).
[8] IS 1725, Specification for soil-based blocks used in general building construction. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India (2013).
[9] IS 8112, Specification for OPC-43 grade cement. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India (1989).
[10] Morton, T., Earth masonry: Design and construction guidelines. IHS BRE Press (2008).
[11] Muhwezi L and Achanit S V., Effect of Sand on the Properties of Compressed Soil-Cement Stabilized Blocks. Colloid and Surface Science, 4(1) (2019) 1-6.
[12] Obonyo E., Exelbirt J., and Baskaran M., Durability of Compressed Earth Bricks: Assessing Erosion Resistance Using the Modified Spray Testing, Sustainability, 2 (2010) 3639-3649;
[13] Oti, J. E., Kinuthia, J.M.and Bai J., Engineering properties of unfired clay masonry bricks, Engineering Geology, 107(3-4) (2009) 130-139,
[14] Riza F V, Rahman I A, Zaidi A M A, A Brief Review of Compressed Stabilized Earth Brick, 2010 International Conference on Science and Social Research (CSSR 2010), December, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5(7) (2010) 1011-1016.
[15] Shahidan, S., Koh, H. B., Alansi, A. S., & Loon, L. Y., Strength development and water permeability of engineered biomass aggregate pervious concrete. In MATEC Web of Conferences, 47 (2016).
[16] Singh R D, Principles and Practices of Modern Coal Mining, New Age International Publishers, (1997).
[17] Sofi A. A, Sheikh T. A., Wani R A, Manzoor A, Cement stabilized earth blocks (CSEB): An economic and eco-friendly building material, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE), 13(6) (2016) 06-11
[18] Verma A& Deb S, Effect of Lithological Variations of Mine Roof on Chock Shield Support Using Numerical Modeling Techniques, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 65 (2006) 702-712.
[19] Walker P J and Stace T, Properties of some cement stabilized compressed earth blocks and mortars, Materials and Structures/Mat4riaux et Constructions, 1996. 30 (1997) 545-551.
[20] Walker P, Characteristics of Pressed Earth Blocks In Compression, 11th International Bricklblock Masonry Conference Tongji University, Shanghai, China, (1997) 1-11
[21] Walker, P. J., Strength, Durability and Shrinkage Characteristics of Cement Stabilized Soil Blocks. Cemenf and Concrete Composites, 17 (1995) 301- 310.