New Miniature Dual Mode Rat-race Coupler Design for Autonomous Vehicles

New Miniature Dual Mode Rat-race Coupler Design for Autonomous Vehicles

© 2022 by IJETT Journal
Volume-70 Issue-1
Year of Publication : 2022
Authors : P. Mahalakshmi, R. Vallikannu
DOI :  10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V70I1P225

How to Cite?

P. Mahalakshmi, R. Vallikannu, "New Miniature Dual Mode Rat-race Coupler Design for Autonomous Vehicles," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 222-233, 2022. Crossref,

With the foundations of dynamic transportation and a growing prevalence, self-driving cars are the driving experience of the future. The challenging study is obstacle avoidance in most electric vehicle systems, which paved the responsibility of performing advanced objective control points to non-collision constraints. The issue with existing implementations of autonomous vehicles is obstacle avoidance, which enables vehicles to reach desired areas while avoiding barriers. Researchers recommend several methods for realizing obstacle detection and collision avoidance. However, most current solutions demonstrated low precision during the tracking process, leading the system to be offensive during bad weather conditions. Therefore, an evolutionary model has been proposed in work presented, having the capability to optimize the performance in terms of crucial parameters towards the bad weather conditions. Hybrid rat-race couplers have been introduced to operate in a dual-band operation, acting as a braking and non-braking function, permitting self-driving automobiles to emerge in a simulated environment. The dual-mode process is simulated using ANSYS resonates at 2.5Ghz. The results indicate a high degree of integration, commonly employed in MIMO research. It also results in reduced echo power in the RADAR direction; it acts as a disputer for electro-magnetic incident waves away from the receiver. The proposed work outperformed two modes and exhibits further enhancements to increase channel capacity with reduced SNR.

Self- Driving Cars, Hybrid Rat-Race coupler, Retrodirective array, LIDAR, Computer Vision Method.

[1] S. Thrun, Toward robotic cars, Commun. ACM, 53 (2010) 99-106.
[2] Jian Zhao, et al., Safety of Autonomous Vehicles, Journal of Advanced Transportation, 13 (2020).
[3] Younis Shareef Dawood, et al., Autonomous Model Vehicles: Signal conditioning and Digital control design, Internation Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 83 (2018).
[4] R.Matthaei, et al., Handbook of Driver Assistance Systems,Springer Reference, (2015).
[5] Anna Petrovskaya and Sebastian Thrun. Model-based vehicle detection and tracking for autonomous urban driving. Autonomous Robots, 26(2- 3) (2009).
[6] Luciano Spinello, et al., A layered approach to people detection in 3d range data, In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (2010).
[7] John Shackleton, et al., Tracking people with a 360-degree lidar, In IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS), (2010).
[8] Dominic Zeng Wang, et al., Model-free detection and tracking of dynamic objects with 2d lidar, The International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR), 34(7) (2015).
[9] A.Dewan, et al., Motion-based detection and tracking in 3D LiDAR scans, In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), (2016).
[10] Desheng Cie, et al., Obstacle Detection and Tracking Method for Autonomous Vehicles based on three-dimensional LIDAR, Internation Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, (2019) 1-13.
[11] F.Alhassoun, et al., A multi-modulation retrodictive feed network for backscatter communications, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mobile Radio Commun., (2017)1-5.
[12] M. Alhassoun, et al., Theory and design of a retro directiver at-race-based RFID tag, IEEE Journal of Radio Frequency Identi_cation, 3(1) (2019) 25-34,
[13] M. Alhassoun and G. D. Durgin, A comparative study of coupler-based retro directive arrays for next-generation RFID tags, in 2019 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology Application (RFID-TA), (2019) 1-5.
[14] K.WEcclestion, et al., Compact planar microstrip line branch-line and rat-race couplers, IEEE Trans.Microw.Theory Tech, (2003) 2119-2125.
[15] H.Ghali, et al., Miniaturized fractal rat-race, branch-line and coupled-line hybrids, IEEE Trans.Microw.Theory Tech., (2004) 2513-2520
[16] J.L.B Walker, et al., Improvements to the design of the 180 Rat race coupler and its applications to the design of balanced mixers with high LO to RF isolation, IEEE MMT-S Digest, 2 (1997) 747-750.
[17] C.Y. Pon, Hybrid-Ring Directional Couplers for Arbitarary Power Divisions, IRE. Trans.Microw.TheoryTechn, 9(6) (1961) 529-535.
[18] Lin Zong et al., Hybrid type rat-race coupler designs, APMEC (2015).
[19] Ahirwar, S et al., Design and Development of Compact rat-race coupler, Advanced Electromagnetics, 8(3) (2020) 36-42.
[20] Chiou, Y.C et al., New Miniature dual-band rat-race coupler with Microwave C-Sections, IEEE MIT-S Int. Microwave Sympo. Dig, (2009) 701-704.
[21] M.E.Sundaravel, AL.Vallikannu and PH. Rao, Compact Slot Loaded Koch fractal Microstrip patch Antenna in proceedings of IEEE applied Electromagnetics Conference, Bhubaneswar, (2013).
[22] L. C. Hsu and T. G. Ma, Data modulation of a reaction-type retrodictive array, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 16 (2017) 1196-1199.
[23] HongmeiLiu et al., Analysis and Design of Miniaturized wide band, rat-race coupler with Improved Phase Performance. Progress in Electromagnetic Research Letters, 98 (2021) 129-137.
[24] M Vinoth and R Vallikannu, A disk-shaped complementary split ring resonator antenna for 5G mid-band applications, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 69(11) (2021) 187–191
[25] Manikandan, et al., Design of compact rat-race coupler for WLAN receivers, International Journal of Creative Research thoughts,9(6) (2021).
[26] M Vinoth and R Vallikannu. Design and Analysis of Metamaterial Patch Antenna 5G and X Band Applications, International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI (2021).