A comparative study of Mixed CNT bundle with Copper for VLSI Interconnect at 32nm
|International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT)||
|© 2013 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2013|
|Authors : Tarun Parihar , Abhilasha Sharma|
Tarun Parihar , Abhilasha Sharma. "A comparative study of Mixed CNT bundle with Copper for VLSI Interconnect at 32nm". International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). V4(4):1145-1150 Apr 2013. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group.
Carburetted 2 - stroke eng ines are a worldwide pandemic. There are over 50 million 2 - stroke cycle engines in Asia alone, powering motorbikes, mopeds, “three - wheelers”, “auto - rickshaws”, “tuk - tuks”, and “tricycles”. These carbu reted 2 - stroke engines are characterized by high levels of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Direct injection is a technology that has s hown a great ability to reduce these emissions while at the s ame time im prove fuel economy. A prototype kit has been designed for use in retrofitting existing carbureted two - stroke engines to direct injection. The kit was desi gned for use on a TVS 50 ; a motorcycle from the INDIA that is commonly used as a transportation. It is however, a relatively common engine design and TVS manufactures similar models for sale all over the world. The conventional fuel injection system kit incorporates the Orbital air blast direct injection system. This injection system has been impl eme nted in TVS 50 . The design involved replacing the existing cylinder head with one designed to incorporate the direct injection valves as well as a modified combustion chamber. An external compressor was added to supply compressed air to the syst em. The carburettor was refined with a throttle body outfitted with a position indicator, and an encoder system was added to provide speed and position feedback to the engine control unit (ECU). Once design and manufacture of the system was complete, it was installed on the motorcycle. The motorcycle was then mounted in a low inertia eddy current dynamometer test cell for calibration. Calibration was done on the dynamometer for power and engine performance. The syste m was also tuned in real world road t ests for drivability. When calibrations were complete emissions and fuel consumption measurements were taken for the vehicle. The results showed an 88% reduction in hydroca rbon emissions and a 72% reduction in carbon monoxide emissions versus the baselin e engine, while at the same time virtually eliminating visible smoke. The CFI system also showed a 32% increase in fuel economy, and had similar to better performance than the carb ureted engine. The CFI system also showed improved cranking and idling characteristics over the carbureted engine.
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Copper (Cu), Carbon Nanotube, Single wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT), Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT), Mixed Carbon Nanotubes (MCNT)