Production, Activation and Characterisation of PKS-Biochar from Elaeis Guineensis Biomass activated with HCl for Optimum Produced Water Treatment
|International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJETT)||
|© 2022 by IJETT Journal|
|Year of Publication : 2022|
|Authors : Kingdom Kponanyie Dune, Falilat Taiwo Ademiluyi et al.
|DOI : 10.14445/23497157/IJETT-V9I1P101|
MLA Style: Kingdom Kponanyie Dune, Falilat Taiwo Ademiluyi et al. "Production, Activation and Characterisation of PKS-Biochar from Elaeis Guineensis Biomass activated with HCl for Optimum Produced Water Treatment" International Journal of Recent Engineering Science vol. 9, no. 1, Jan-Feb. 2022, pp. 1-7. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/23497157/IJETT-V9I1P101
APA Style: Kingdom Kponanyie Dune, Falilat Taiwo Ademiluyi, Godwin Chukwuma Jacob Nmegbu, Kenneth Dagde, Adaobi Stephenie Nwosi-Anele. (2022). Production, Activation and Characterisation of PKS-Biochar from Elaeis Guineensis Biomass activated with HCl for Optimum Produced Water Treatment. International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, 9(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.14445/23497157/IJETT-V9I1P101
The treatment of oilfield produced water for reuse using activated carbons (AC) derived from palm kernel shells (PKS) biomass was studied. The biomass (PKS) was prepared and converted to Biochar by pyrolysis and then activated with 0.2M HCl at a temperature of 450oC. The AC (adsorbent) produced was characterised for pH, bulk density, particle size, iodine number, ash and moisture contents. The characteristics of the adsorbent indicate that the iodine numbers ranged from 525.10-918.93mg/g for particle sizes 150-1180 μm); ash content ranged from 2.00-2.80% PKS. Moisture content could get as low as 1.6% for PKS when warmed in an oven at 105oC for 1 hour. The acid concentration and adsorbent particle size were optimized; and based on iodine number, the 300μm particle size (with pH = 7.4, iodine number=918.93, moisture=6.2% and %ash=2.00) showed good prospect for removing contaminants from produced water. It is recommended that the conversion of Elaeis Guineensis biomasses, especially palm kernel shells (PKS), to activated carbon should be encouraged for oilfield produced water treatment in the production phase of the petroleum industry because of its high adsorptive capacity. To improve the adsorption capacity of the PKS, it is also recommended that any other stronger activation reagents should be used to activate PKS because of its bulk density.
 GRIN - Elaeis Guineensis. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) ., Retrieved 12 December (2017).
 R. Singh, M. Ong-Abdullah, E. L. Low, A. A. M. Mohamad, R. Rosli,R. Nookiah, L. Ooi Cheng-Li, Siew-Eng Ooi, C. Kuang-Lim, M. A. Halim, N. Azizi, J. Nagappan, B. Bacher, N. Lakey, S. W. Smith, D. He, M. Hogan, M. A. Budiman, E. K. Lee, R. DeSalle, D. Kudma, J. L. Goicoechea, R. Wing, R. K. Wilson, R. S. Fulton, J. M. Ordway, R. A. Martienssen, & R. Sambanthamurthi – Oil Palm Genome Sequence Reveals Divergence of Interfertile Species in Old and New Worlds. Nature, Aug. (2013) 15.
 O. M. Ikumapayi, & E. T. Akinlabi – Composition, Characteristics and Socioeconomic Benefits of Palm Kernel Shell Exploitation-An Overview. Journal of Env. l Sc. and Tech, 11 (2018) 220-232.
 S. A. Ruslan, F. M. Muharam, Z. Zulkafli, D. Omar, & M. P. Zambri, - Using Satellite-measured Relative Humidity for Prediction of Metisa Plana's Population in Oil Palm Plantations: A Comparative Assessment of Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models. PLOS ONE. PLoS. 14 (10) (2019).
 A. Bhatnagar & M. Sillanpää,– Review Utilization of Agro-industrial and Municipal Waste Materials as Potential Adsorbents for Water Treatment—A Review. Chemical Engineering Journal, 157 (2–3)(2010) 277-296.
 F. T. Ademiluyi, & E. O. David-West, Effect of Chemical Activation on the Adsorption of Heavy Metals using Activated Carbons from Waste Materials. ISRN Chemical Engineering, (2012).
 K. A. Adegoke & O. S. Bello - Dye Sequestration using Agricultural Wastes as Adsorbents. Water Resources & Industry, 12 (2015) 8-24.
 F. T. Ademiluyi – Kinetic Modelling of Multiple Adsorption of Heavy Metals Ions in Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon from Nigeria Bamboo for the design of Adsorbers. American Journal of Chemical Engineering 4(5) (2016) 105-113.
 J. Mo, Q. Yang, N. Zhang, Z. Wenxiang, Z. Yi, & Z. Zhang. – A review on agro-industrial waste (AIW) derived Adsorbents for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Journal of Environmental Management, 227 (2018) 395-405.
 DG - Engineering and Design – Adsorption Design Guide, Department of The Army, DG 1110-1-2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Design Guide ., 1110-1-2 ( 2001) 2-1.
 E. A. Ajayi, F. T. Ademiluyi, & M. F. N. Abowei – Design of a Pyrolyzer for the Production of Fuel oil using Palm Kernel Shells. Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), 2 (1) (2020) 73-83.
 Zhang, Z., Zhu, Z., Shen, B., & Liu, L., Insights into Biochar and hydrochar production and applications: a review. Energy 171 (2019) 581–589.
 A. G. Daful, M. R. Chandraratne – Biochar Production from Biomass Waste-Derived Material. Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering. Elsevier, Amsterdam, (2018) 11249–11258.
 S. Cheah, W. S. Jablonski, J. L. Olstad, D. L. Carpenter, K. D. Barthelemy, D. J. Robichaud, J. C. Andrews, S. K. Black, M. D. Oddo, & T. L. Westover – Effects of Thermal Pretreatment and Catalyst on Biomass Gasification Efficiency and Syngas Composition. Green Chem 18 (2016) 6291–6304.
 T. M. Rizwan & A. Shafiul, (2019). Biochar from Biomass and Waste. https://www.sciencedirect.com
 X. Tan, Y. Liu, & G. Zeng Application of Biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 125 (2015) 70–85.
 F. Zhao, B. Ma, & N. Bin – Adsorption of Ammonia Nitrogen in Water by Corn Stalk Biochar. Journal of Lanzhou Jiaotong University.1(024) (2015).
 A. P. Sincero, & G. A. Sincero, - Environmental Engineering: A Design Approach, (Indian Ed.), Pearson India Education Services Pvt Ltd., (2015) 400-407.
 J. F. Richardson, J. H. Harker, & J. R. Backhurst - Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Fifth Edition, 2, Butterworth-Heinemann, An imprint of Elsevier Science, Linacre House, Oxford, 971 (2002).
 F. Rodríguez-Reinoso, & M. Molina-Sabio - Activated Carbons from Lignocellulosic Materials by Chemical And/or Physical Activation: An Overview. Carbon. 30 (7), (1992)1111-1118
 F. T. Ademiluyi, & J. C. Nze – Multiple Adsorption of Heavy Metals Ions in Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon from Nigeria Bamboo. International J. of Research in Eng. and Tech, 5(1) (2016) 164-9.
 F. T. Ademiluyi, & J. C. Nze – Sorption Characteristics for Multiple Adsorption of Heavy Metals Ions in Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon from Nigeria Bamboo. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 4(4) (2016) 39-48.
 Baby Rabia, S. Bullo. & Z. H. Mohd - Palm Kernel Shell as an Effective Adsorbent for the Treatment of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water. Scientific Reports , 9 (2019) 18955.
 A. Mianowski – Surface Area of Activated Carbon Determined by the Iodine Adsorption Number. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 29 (9) (2007) 839-850.
 Ademiluyi, F. T. & A. Alex - Batch Adsorption Kinetics of Zinc Ions using Activated Carbon from Nigeria Bamboo. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1) (2016) 95-99.
 F. O. Obi, B. O. Ugwuishiwu, & J. N. Nwahaire, Agricultural Waste Concept, Generation, Utilization and Management. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 35(4) (2016) 957-964.
Activation, Activated carbon, Adsorption, Elaeis Guineensis, Pyrolysis.