An Analytical Framework for Screening Cardiogenic Brain Abscess in Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

An Analytical Framework for Screening Cardiogenic Brain Abscess in Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

© 2023 by IJETT Journal
Volume-71 Issue-2
Year of Publication : 2023
Author : Subramaniyan Mani, Sumit Thakar, N. S. Suijth, R. Raghunatha Sarma
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V71I2P210

How to Cite?

Subramaniyan Mani, Sumit Thakar, N. S. Suijth, R. Raghunatha Sarma, "An Analytical Framework for Screening Cardiogenic Brain Abscess in Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 78-88, 2023. Crossref,

Patients diagnosed with the congenital heart condition called Tetralogy of Fallot(TOF) are prone to developing cardiogenic brain abscess(CBA), the diagnosis of which is often delayed in a resource-limited setting. The current study is aimed to demonstrate the effective application of various Machine Learning(ML) techniques through appropriate data-mining strategies in the screening process for CBA. The data set for this retrospective study included clinical, echo-cardiographic and radiological variables pertaining to TOF patients with CBA. The study demonstrates four data mining tasks to highlight the importance of machine learning techniques for the screening of CBA in TOF patients. Firstly, suitable ML techniques are used to classify the TOF patients with BA correctly. Conformal prediction is then used to provide levels of reliability for individual predictions. ‘SHAP’ analysis is done to provide model explainability. Finally, Association Rule Mining(ARM) is utilized to draw the relationships between the top features and the outcome, thus identifying variables that expressed optimal interestingness in the study. The evaluation metrics for the ML models were better than those of the LR model, with Random forest(RF) performing the best (precision: 0.94; recall, accuracy, F-score and Area under the curve: 0.93). Conformal prediction analysis revealed an accuracy of 0.95. Association rule mining identified a combination of ‘Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio’, absence of ‘branch confluence’ and the ‘presence of cyanosis’ to have a significant ‘Irule’ value (1.03). Machine learning outperforms the ‘BATOF score’, a logistic regression-based score in identifying biomarkers for TOF patients. The RF algorithm demonstrated the best evaluation metrics of the various models tested. A combination of three variables can accurately and reliably aid the clinician in suspecting a CBA in male TOF patients. An ML framework designed with careful analysis to provide definitive and largely interpretable results with high confidence is proven to be an able tool in clinical decision-making.

Association rule mining, Cardiogenic brain abscess, Logistic regression, Machine learning, Random forest.

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