Augmenting Efficacy of Global Climate Model Forecasts: Machine Learning Appraisal of Remote Sensing Data

Augmenting Efficacy of Global Climate Model Forecasts: Machine Learning Appraisal of Remote Sensing Data

  IJETT-book-cover           
  
© 2024 by IJETT Journal
Volume-72 Issue-6
Year of Publication : 2024
Author : Soumyajit Koley
DOI : 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V72I6P139

How to Cite?

Soumyajit Koley, "Augmenting Efficacy of Global Climate Model Forecasts: Machine Learning Appraisal of Remote Sensing Data," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 442-502, 2024. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V72I6P139

Abstract
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has asked the scientific community to determine new scenario projections to assist in future climate change assessments. This review explored the use of satellite microwave sounder observations to monitor climate change and the uncertainties associated with these observations. The article also discusses the challenges of optimising deep learning models for precipitation models using categorical binary metrics and presents an alternative formulation for these metrics. An assessment of the historical runs of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) reveals that all model runs express inconsistent global warming compared to remote–sensing observations in the lower and middle troposphere, both in the tropics and globally. The study concludes with an upward bias in climate model warming responses in the tropical troposphere, which has worsened in the latest generation of climate models.

Keywords
Climate change, GHG emissions, Integrated assessment models, Remote sensing, System dynamics, Machine learning.

References
[1] A.T. Archibald et al., “Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: A Critical Review of Changes in the Tropospheric Ozone Burden and Budget from 1850 to 2100,” Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-53, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[2] Mansour Almazroui et al., “Regional and Seasonal Variation of Climate Extremes Over Saudi Arabia: Observed Evidence for the Period 1978-2021,” Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 15, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[3] Robert Colman, and Brian J. Soden, “Water Vapor and Lapse Rate Feedbacks in the Climate System,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1-91, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[4] Raghavendra Ashrit et al., “IMDAA Regional Reanalysis: Performance Evaluation during Indian Summer Monsoon Season,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 1-26, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[5] Saginela Ravindra Babu, “Convective Tropopause Over the Tropics: Climatology, Seasonality, and Inter-Annual Variability Inferred from Long-Term FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC-1 RO Data,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 298, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[6] Yoonjung Ahn et al., “Verifying Experimental Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Hindcasts Across the United States,” GeoHealth, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-19, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[7] Alexander J. Baker et al., “Extratropical Transition of Tropical Cyclones in a Multiresolution Ensemble of Atmosphere-Only and Fully Coupled Global Climate Models,” Journal of Climate, vol. 35, no. 16, pp. 5283-5306, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[8] Karoline Block et al., “Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations Derived from the CAMS Reanalysis,” Earth System Science Data, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 443-470, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[9] Ronan Connolly et al., “Challenges in the Detection and Attribution of Northern Hemisphere Surface Temperature Trends Since 1850,” Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1-20, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[10] Stella Bourdin et al., “Intercomparison of Four Algorithms for Detecting Tropical Cyclones Using ERA5,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 15, no. 17, pp. 6759-6786, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[11] Ilann Bourgeois et al., “Comparison of Airborne Measurements of NO, NO2, HONO, NOy, and CO during FIREX-AQ,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 15, no. 16, pp. 4901–4930, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[12] Alugula Boyaj et al., “Role of Radiation and Canopy Model in Predicting Heat Waves Using WRF Over the City of Bhubaneswar, Odisha,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 135, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[13] Di Tian et al., “A Hybrid Framework for Forecasting Monthly Reservoir Inflow Based on Machine Learning Techniques with Dynamic Climate Forecasts, Satellite-Based Data, and Climate Phenomenon Information,” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, vol. 36, pp. 2353-2375, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[14] Deepanshu Aggarwal et al., “Monsoon Precipitation Characteristics and Extreme Precipitation Events Over Northwest India Using Indian High Resolution Regional Reanalysis,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 267, pp. 1-38, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[15] Akintomide Afolayan Akinsanola et al., “Evaluation of Precipitation across the Contiguous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico in Multi-Decadal Convection-Permitting Simulations,” Scientific Reports, vol. 14, pp. 1-17, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[16] Tanzina Akther et al., “Ozone Precursors and Boundary Layer Meteorology Before and During a Severe Ozone Episode in Mexico City,” Chemosphere, vol. 318, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[17] Tommaso Alberti et al., “Dynamical Diagnostic of Extreme Events in Venice Lagoon and their Mitigation with the MoSE,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-11, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[18] Diego Urdiales-Flores et al., “Drivers of Accelerated Warming in Mediterranean Climate-Type Regions,” Npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, vol. 6, pp. 1-9, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[19] Robert Vautard et al., “Heat Extremes in Western Europe Increasing Faster Than Simulated Due to Atmospheric Circulation Trends,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, pp. 1-9, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[20] Daniel J. Vecellio, Constantino M. Lagoa, and David E. Conroy, “Physical Activity Dependence on Relative Temperature and Humidity Characteristics in a Young, Insufficiently Active Population: A Weather Typing Analysis,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 357-364, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[21] John G. Virgin et al., “Cloud Feedbacks from CanESM2 to CanESM5.0 and their Influence on Climate Sensitivity,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 5355-5372, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[22] Erika Von Schneidemesser et al., “Chemistry and the Linkages between Air Quality and Climate Change,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 3856-3897, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[23] Shuang Wang et al., “Simulation of the Long-Term Variability of the Hadley Circulation in CMIP6 Models,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 287, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[24] Christopher D. Wells et al., “Significant Human Health Co-Benefits of Mitigating African Emissions,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1025-1039, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[25] Wan Wu et al., “Spectral Fingerprinting of Methane from Hyper-Spectral Sounder Measurements Using Machine Learning and Radiative Kernel-Based Inversion,” Remote Sensing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1-19, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[26] Kanak Lata Xalxo et al., “Performance Assessment of WRF Model Radiation Schemes in Simulating the Track and Intensity of the Super Cyclonic Storm "Amphan",” Nat Hazards, vol. 114, pp. 1741-1762, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[27] Xinru Xie et al., “Changes in ENSO-Driven Hadley Circulation Variability under Global Warming,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 274, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[28] Weiwei Xu et al., “A New Algorithm for Himawari-8 Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval by Integrating Regional PM₂.₅ Concentrations,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 60, pp. 1-11, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[29] Laura Hyesung Yang et al., “Tropospheric NO2 Vertical Profiles Over South Korea and their Relation to Oxidant Chemistry: Implications for Geostationary Satellite Retrievals and the Observation of NO2 Diurnal Variation from Space,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 2465-2481, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[30] Hao Ye et al., “Lake Ice Thickness Retrieval Method with ICESat-2-Assisted CyroSat-2 Echo Peak Selection,” Remote Sensing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1-17, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[31] Jong-Min Yeom et al., “Estimation of the Hourly Aerosol Optical Depth from GOCI Geostationary Satellite Data: Deep Neural Network, Machine Learning, and Physical Models,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 60, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[32] Mingxin Yu et al., “Interdecadal Shift of the El Niño’s Modulation on the Connection between the Hadley Circulation and Tropical SST,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 60, pp. 2167-2181, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[33] Jianye Yuan et al., “Research on Lightweight Disaster Classification Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images,” Remote Sensing, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1-17, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[34] Colin M. Zarzycki, “Sowing Storms: How Model Timestep Can Control Tropical Cyclone Frequency in a GCM,” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1-21, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[35] Mark D. Zelinka et al., “Evaluating Climate Models’ Cloud Feedbacks Against Expert Judgment,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 1-18, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[36] Tianhao Zhang et al., “A Geometry-Discrete Minimum Reflectance Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (GeoMRA) for Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Over Heterogeneous Surfaces,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 60, pp. 1-14, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[37] Xiaqiong Zhou et al., “The Development of the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System Version 12,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1069-1084, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[38] Jiang Zhu et al., “LGM Paleoclimate Constraints Inform Cloud Parameterizations and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity in CESM2,” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1-18, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[39] George Zittis et al., “Maritime Transport and Regional Climate Change Impacts in Large EU Islands and Archipelagos,” Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration, vol. 8, pp. 441-454, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[40] Cristian Felipe Zuluaga et al., “The Climate Change Perspective of Photovoltaic Power Potential in Brazil,” Renewable Energy, vol. 193, pp. 1019-1031, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[41] Juseon Bak et al., “An Improved OMI Ozone Profile Research Product Version 2.0 with Collection 4 L1b Data and Algorithm Updates,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1891-1911, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[42] Andrea Baraldi et al., “Innovative Analysis Ready Data (ARD) Product and Process Requirements, Software System Design, Algorithms and Implementation at the Midstream as Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Precondition of the Downstream in a New Notion of Space Economy 4.0 - Part 1: Problem Background in Artificial General Intelligence (AGI),” Big Earth Data, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 455-693, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[43] Jasia Bashir, and Shakil Ahmad Romshoo, “Bias-Corrected Climate Change Projections over the Upper Indus Basin Using a Multi-Model Ensemble,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 30, pp. 64517-64535, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[44] Hylke E. Beck et al., “High-Resolution (1 km) Köppen-Geiger Maps for 1901-2099 Based on Constrained CMIP6 Projections,” Scientific Data, vol. 10, pp. 1-16, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[45] G.H. Bernhard et al., “Stratospheric Ozone, UV Radiation, and Climate Interactions,” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, vol. 22, pp. 937-989, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[46] Muhammad Tousif Bhatti, Arif A. Anwar, and Kashif Hussain, “Characterization and Outlook of Climatic Hazards in an Agricultural Area of Pakistan,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-17, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[47] Russell Blackport, and John C. Fyfe, “Climate Models Fail to Capture Strengthening Wintertime North Atlantic Jet and Impacts on Europe,” Science Advances, vol. 8, no. 45, pp. 1-10, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[48] Sara M. Blichner et al., “Process-Evaluation of Forest Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Feedback Shows Clear Evidence from Observations and Large Uncertainty in Models,” Nature Communications, vol. 15, pp. 1-12, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[49] Josep Bonsoms et al., “Impact of Climate Change on Snowpack Dynamics in Coastal Central-Western Greenland,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 913, pp. 1-13, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[50] Steven J. Brey et al., “Past Variance and Future Projections of the Environmental Conditions Driving Western U.S. Summertime Wildfire Burn Area,” Earth’s Future, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1-14, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[51] E. Bruley et al., “Enhanced Spring Warming in a Mediterranean Mountain by Atmospheric Circulation,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[52] Michael P. Byrne et al., “Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength,” Current Climate Change Reports, vol. 4, pp. 355-370, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[53] Xiaoyan Cao et al., “Spatial-Temporal Variation in XCH4 during 2009-2021 and its Driving Factors across the Land of the Northern Hemisphere,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 291, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[54] Anny Cazenave, and Lorena Moreira, “Contemporary Sea-Level Changes from Global to Local Scales: A Review,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, vol. 478, no. 2261, pp. 1-30, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[55] Sara Cerasoli, Jun Yin, and Amilcare Porporato, “Cloud Cooling Effects of Afforestation and Reforestation at Midlatitudes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118, no. 33, pp. 1-7, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[56] Heeje Cho, Jong-Seong Kug, and Sang-Yoon Jun, “Influence of the Recent Winter Arctic Sea Ice Loss in Short-Term Simulations of a Regional Atmospheric Model,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, pp. 1-8, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[57] Kyle R. Clem et al., “Central Tropical Pacific Convection Drives Extreme High Temperatures and Surface Melt on the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula,” Nature Communications, vol. 13, pp. 1-13, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[58] Jongyun Byun et al., “Deep Learning-Based Rainfall Prediction Using Cloud Image Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 61, pp. 1-11, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[59] D. Coumou et al., “The Influence of Arctic Amplification on Mid-Latitude Summer Circulation,” Nature Communications, vol. 9, pp. 1-12, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[60] Lilly Damany-Pearce et al., “Australian Wildfires Cause the Largest Stratospheric Warming Since Pinatubo and Extends the Lifetime of the Antarctic Ozone Hole,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, pp. 1-15, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[61] Oliver Branch et al., “Scaling Artificial Heat Islands to Enhance Precipitation in the United Arab Emirates,” Earth System Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 109-129, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[62] Hien X. Bui et al., “Responses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation to Global Warming: Impacts from Tropical Sea Surface Temperature Changes,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 605-617, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[63] Nanda Kishore Reddy Busireddy et al., “Modelled Impact of Ocean Warming on Tropical Cyclone Size and Destructiveness Over the Bay of Bengal: A Case Study on FANI Cyclone,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 279, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[64] Camille Cadiou et al., “Challenges in Attributing the 2022 Australian Rain Bomb to Climate Change,” Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 59, pp. 83-94, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[65] Suzana J. Camargo et al., “Characteristics of Model Tropical Cyclone Climatology and the Large-Scale Environment,” Journal of Climate, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 4463-4487, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[66] Mengdan Cao et al., “A Two-Stage Machine Learning Algorithm for Retrieving Multiple Aerosol Properties Over Land: Development and Validation,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 61, pp. 1-17, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[67] Brian J. Carroll et al., “Measuring Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Dynamics: The California Fire Dynamics Experiment (CalFiDE),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. E690-E708, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[68] Paulo Ceppi et al., “Cloud Feedback Mechanisms and their Representation in Global Climate Models,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 8, no. 4, 2017.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[69] Jackson Hian-Wui Chang et al., “Biomass Burning in Critical Fire Region Over the Maritime Continent from 2012 to 2021: A Review of the Meteorological Influence and Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 320, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[70] Jianbo Cheng et al., “On the Discrepancies in the Changes in the Annual Mean Hadley Circulation among Different Regions and Between CMIP5 Models and Reanalyses,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 141, pp. 1475-1491, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[71] Chaowei Xu et al., “Comprehensive Analysis for Long-Term Hydrological Simulation by Deep Learning Techniques and Remote Sensing,” Frontiers in Earth Science, vol. 10, pp. 1-16, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[72] Josep Cos et al., “The Mediterranean Climate Change Hotspot in the CMIP5 and CMIP6 Projections,” Earth System Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 321-340, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[73] Tyler Cox et al., “Trends in Atmospheric Heat Transport Since 1980,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1539-1550, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[74] Alessandro Damiani et al., “Air Quality and Urban Climate Improvements in the World’s Most Populated Region during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1-12, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[75] S. De Cannière et al., “Water Availability and Atmospheric Dryness Controls on Spaceborne Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Yield,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 301, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[76] Fernando Rafael de Moura et al., “In the Line of Fire: Analyzing Burning Impacts on Air Pollution and Air Quality in an Amazonian City, Brazil,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 15, no. 4, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[77] Surat Dewan, and Anita Lakhani, “Tropospheric Ozone and its Natural Precursors Impacted by Climatic Changes in Emission and Dynamics,” Frontiers in Environmental Science, vol. 10, pp. 1-21, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[78] Tom Dror et al., “Uncovering the Large-Scale Meteorology that Drives Continental, Shallow, Green Cumulus through Supervised Classification,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1-8, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[79] William Dulac et al., “Assessing the Representation of Tropical Cyclones in ERA5 with the CNRM Tracker,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 62, pp. 223-238, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[80] Sean W. Fleming et al., “SNOTEL, the Soil Climate Analysis Network, and Water Supply Forecasting at the Natural Resources Conservation Service: Past, Present, and Future,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 585-599, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[81] Fouzia Fahrin et al., “The Relationship between Convectively Coupled Waves and the East Pacific ITCZ,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 2565-2583, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[82] Davide Faranda et al., “A Climate-Change Attribution Retrospective of Some Impactful Weather Extremes of 2021,” Weather and Climate Dynamics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1311-1340, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[83] J.T. Fasullo et al., “Spurious Late Historical-Era Warming in CESM2 Driven by Prescribed Biomass Burning Emissions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 1-11, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[84] Juan Feng et al., “Asymmetric Impacts of El Niño Development and Decay Stages on the Hadley Circulation,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1-9, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[85] Artem G. Feofilov et al., “Incorporating EarthCARE Observations into a Multi-Lidar Cloud Climate Record: The ATLID (Atmospheric Lidar) Cloud Climate Product,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 3363-3390, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[86] Arlene M. Fiore, Vaishali Naik, and Eric M. Leibensperger, “Air Quality and Climate Connections,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 645-685, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[87] Ricardo Fonseca, and Diana Francis, “Satellite Derived Trends and Variability of CO2 Concentrations in the Middle East during 2014-2023,” Frontiers in Environmental Science, vol. 11, pp. 1-20, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[88] Dimitra Founda et al., “The Extreme Heat Wave of Summer 2021 in Athens (Greece): Cumulative Heat and Exposure to Heat Stress,” Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 1-16, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[89] Elissavet Galanaki et al., “Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Heatwaves Characteristics in Greece from 1950 to 2020,” Climate, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-23, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[90] Jinming Ge et al., “Contrasting Characteristics of Continental and Oceanic Deep Convective Systems at Different Life Stages from CloudSat Observations,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 298, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[91] Melissa Gervais, Lantao Suna, and Clara Deser, “Impacts of Projected Arctic Sea Ice Loss on Daily Weather Patterns Over North America,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1065-1085, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[92] Homa Ghasemifard et al., “Do Changing Circulation Types Raise the Frequency of Summertime Thunderstorms and Large Hail in Europe?,” Environmental Research: Climate, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-14, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[93] Theodore M. Giannaros et al., “Meteorological Analysis of the 2021 Extreme Wildfires in Greece: Lessons Learned and Implications for Early Warning of the Potential for Pyroconvection,” Atmosphere, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1-13, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[94] Sujung Go et al., “Ground-Based Retrievals of Aerosol Column Absorption in the UV Spectral Region and their Implications for GEMS Measurements,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 245, pp. 1-55, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[95] Daniel L. Goldberg et al., “TROPOMI NO2 in the United States: A Detailed Look at the Annual Averages, Weekly Cycles, Effects of Temperature, and Correlation with Surface NO2 Concentrations,” Earth’s Future, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1-16, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[96] I.E. Gordon et al., “The HITRAN2020 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 277, pp. 1-82, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[97] Hong Guan et al., “GEFSv12 Reforecast Dataset for Supporting Subseasonal and Hydrometeorological Applications,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 647-665, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[98] Mohammad Ganjirad, and Hossein Bagheri, “Google Earth Engine-Based Mapping of Land Use and Land Cover for Weather Forecast Models Using Landsat 8 Imagery,” Ecological Informatics, vol. 80, pp. 1-28, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[99] Shu Gui et al., “Association of the Cloud Radiative Effect with the Changes in the Northern Edge of Hadley Circulation between the CMIP5 and CMIP6 Models in Boreal Summer,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 155, pp. 1247-1259, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[100] Aman Guptaet al., “Estimates of Southern Hemispheric Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes across Observations, Reanalyses, and Kilometer-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction Model,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 583-604, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[101] Panos Hadjinicolaou et al., “Urbanisation and Geographical Signatures in Observed Air Temperature Station Trends Over the Mediterranean and the Middle East–North Africa,” Earth Systems and Environment, vol. 7, pp. 649-659, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[102] J. Antonio Guzmán Q. et al., “Multi-Decadal Trends of Low-Clouds at the Tropical Montane Cloud Forests,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 158, pp. 1-9, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[103] Thomas M. Hamill et al., “The Reanalysis for the Global Ensemble Forecast System, Version 12,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 59-79, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[104] Zhihui Han et al., “Evaluation on the Applicability of ERA5 Reanalysis Dataset to Tropical Cyclones Affecting Shanghai,” Frontiers of Earth Science, vol. 16, pp. 1025-1039, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[105] Vittal Hari et al., “On the Role of the Atlantic Meridional Mode in Eastern European Temperature Variability,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 297, pp. 1-10, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[106] Zeke Hausfather et al., “Climate Simulations: Recognize the ‘Hot Model’ Problem,” Nature, vol. 605, pp. 26-29, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[107] Shuyang Xie et al., “Ambient Atmospheric Application and Influencing Factors of Ozone Catalytic Decomposition Materials in a Channel Test,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 321, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[108] Assaf Hochman et al., “Extreme Weather and Societal Impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean,” Earth System Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 749-777, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[109] Erik Höjgård-Olsen, Hélène Chepfer, and Hélène Brogniez, “Satellite Observed Sensitivity of Tropical Clouds and Moisture to Sea Surface Temperature on Various Time and Space Scales: 1. Focus on High Level Cloud Situations Over Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1-21, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[110] Farnaz E. Hosseinpour, and Eric M. Wilcox, “A New Look into the Impacts of Dust Radiative Forcing on the Energetics of Tropical Easterly Waves,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 707-724, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[111] Dubin Huan et al., “Modeled Variations of Tropical Cyclone Genesis Potential during Marine Isotope Stage 3,” Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 326, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[112] Wenshuo Huang et al., “Recent Opposite Trends of Atmospheric Rivers Over East Asia and Western North Pacific Driven by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 129, no. 1, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[113] Ahmad Iqbal et al., “Retrieval of NO2 Columns by Exploiting MAX-DOAS Observations and Comparison with OMI and TROPOMI Data during the Time Period of 2015-2019,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1-20, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[114] Xianan Jiang et al., “Muted Extratropical Low Cloud Seasonal Cycle is Closely Linked to Underestimated Climate Sensitivity in Models,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, pp. 1-11, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[115] Najmeh Kaffashzadeh, and Abbas-Ali Aliakbari Bidokhti, “Assessment of Surface Ozone Products from Downscaled CAMS Reanalysis and CAMS Daily Forecast Using Urban Air Quality Monitoring Stations in Iran,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 4155-4179, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[116] Peter Kalmus et al., “A High-Resolution Planetary Boundary Layer Height Seasonal Climatology from GNSS Radio Occultations,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 276, pp. 1-9, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[117] Yoojin Kang et al., “Improved Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth and Fine Mode Fraction from GOCI Geostationary Satellite Data Using Machine Learning Over East Asia,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 183, pp. 253-268, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[118] Dimitris Karagkiozidis et al., “Assessment of the NO2 Spatio-Temporal Variability over Thessaloniki, Greece, Using MAX-DOAS Measurements and Comparison with S5P/TROPOMI Observations,” Applied Sciences, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1-23, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[119] D.G. Kaskaoutis et al., “Aerosol Characteristics and Types in the Marine Environments Surrounding the East Mediterranean - Middle East (EMME) Region during the AQABA Campaign,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 298, pp. 1-16, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[120] Hanjun Kim et al., “Subtropical Clouds Key to Southern Ocean Teleconnections to the Tropical Pacific,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 119, no. 34, pp. 1-8, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[121] Reto Knutti, Maria A.A. Rugenstein, and Gabriele C. Hegerl, “Beyond Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 10, pp. 727-736, 2017.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[122] Hui-Wen Lai, Deliang Chen, and Hans W. Chen, “Precipitation Variability Related to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Over the Tibetan Plateau,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 91-107, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[123] Hsiang-He Lee, Qi Tang, and Michael Prather, “E3SM Chemistry Diagnostics Package (ChemDyg) Version 0.1.4,” Geoscientific Model Development, pp. 1-46, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[124] Pieternel F. Levelt et al., “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Overview of 14 Years in Space,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 5699-5745, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[125] Davide Faranda et al., “Attributing Venice Acqua Alta Events to a Changing Climate and Evaluating the Efficacy of MoSE Adaptation Strategy,” Npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, vol. 6, pp. 1-8, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[126] Ondřej Lhotka, and Jan Kyselý, “The 2021 European Heat Wave in the Context of Past Major Heat Waves,” Earth and Space Science, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[127] Qiyun Ma, Yumeng Chen, and Monica Ionita, “European Summer Wet-Bulb Temperature: Spatiotemporal Variations and Potential Drivers,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 2059-2080, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[128] P. Malakar et al., “Comparison of Reanalysis Data Sets to Comprehend the Evolution of Tropical Cyclones Over North Indian Ocean,” Earth and Space Science, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1-15, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[129] Liudmyla Malytska et al., “Assessment of Environmental Consequences of Hostilities: Tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Amounts in the Atmosphere Over Ukraine in 2019-2022,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 318, pp. 1-13, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[130] Anna Martin et al., “Evaluation of the Coupling of EMACv2.55 and the Land Surface and Vegetation Model JSBACHv4,” EGUsphere, pp. 1-40, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[131] Akriti Masoom et al., “Investigation of the Effects of the Greek Extreme Wildfires of August 2021 on Air Quality and Spectral Solar Irradiance,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 8487-8514, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[132] Mohammad Mortezazadeh et al., “Sweep Interpolation: A Cost-Effective Semi-Lagrangian Scheme in the Global Environmental Multiscale Model,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 335-346, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[133] Kaighin A. McColl, and Lois I. Tang, “An Analytic Theory of Near-Surface Relative Humidity over Land,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1213-1230, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[134] Daniel T. McCoy et al., “Extratropical Shortwave Cloud Feedbacks in the Context of the Global Circulation and Hydrological Cycle,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1-11, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[135] A.V. Mishonov et al., “High-Resolution Regional Ocean Climatologies with the Northwest Atlantic as an Example: A Review,” Journal of Marine Science Research and Oceanography, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-32, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[136] P. S. Monks et al., “Tropospheric Ozone and its Precursors from the Urban to the Global Scale from Air Quality to Short-Lived Climate Forcer,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 8889–8973, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[137] Falco Monsees et al., “Relations between Cyclones and Ozone Changes in the Arctic Using Data from Satellite Instruments and the MOSAiC Ship Campaign,” EGUsphere, pp. 1-25, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[138] Kathryn A. Moore et al., “Characterizing Ice Nucleating Particles Over the Southern Ocean Using Simultaneous Aircraft and Ship Observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 1-20, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[139] Michael R. Grose et al., “Australian Climate Warming: Observed Change from 1850 and Global Temperature Targets,” Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 30-43, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[140] Gayan Pathirana et al., “Intermodel Relation between Present-Day Warm Pool Intensity and Future Precipitation Changes,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 62, pp. 345-355, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[141] Victor M. Velasco Hererra et al., “Past and Future of Wildfires in Northern Hemisphere’s Boreal Forests,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 504, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[142] Raghu Nadimpalli et al., “Effect of Vortex Initialization and Relocation Method in Anticipating Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity over the Bay of Bengal,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 178, no. 10, pp. 4049-4071, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[143] M.M. Nageswararao, Yuejian Zhu, and Vijay Tallapragada, “Prediction Skill of GEFSv12 for Southwest Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Associated Extreme Rainfall Events on Extended Range Scale over India,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1135-1156, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[144] Robert H. Nazarian et al., “Projected Changes in Mean and Extreme Precipitation Over Northern Mexico,” Journal of Climate, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 2405-2422, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[145] Takuro Aizawa, Naga Oshima, and Seiji Yukimoto, “Contributions of Anthropogenic Aerosol Forcing and Multidecadal Internal Variability to Mid-20th Century Arctic Cooling-CMIP6/DAMIP Multimodel Analysis,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[146] George J. Boer et al., “Verification Data and the Skill of Decadal Predictions,” Frontiers in Climate, vol. 4, pp. 1-15, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[147] Keneshia Hibbert et al., “Changes to Sea Surface Temperatures and Vertical Wind Shear and their Influence on Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Caribbean and the Main Developing Region,” Atmosphere, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1-17, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[148] Wen Chen et al., “Recent Advances in Understanding Multi-scale Climate Variability of the Asian Monsoon,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 1429-1456, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[149] Chloe Brimicombe et al., “Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: Indicating Extreme Heat Risk on a Global Grid,” GeoHealth, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1-14, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[150] Florian Ladstädter, Andrea K. Steiner, and Hans Gleisner, “Resolving the 21st Century Temperature Trends of the Upper Troposphere–Lower Stratosphere with Satellite Observations,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-8, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[151] Peter O’Neill et al., “Evaluation of the Homogenization Adjustments Applied to European Temperature Records in the Global Historical Climatology Network Dataset,” Atmosphere, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1-21, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[152] G. Shanmugam, “200 Years of Fossil Fuels and Climate Change (1900–2100),” Journal of the Geological Society of India, vol. 99, pp. 1043-1062, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[153] Christoph Kalicinsky, and Ralf Koppmann, “Multi-Decadal Oscillations of Surface Temperatures and the Impact on Temperature Increases,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, pp. 1-10, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[154] Robin Noyelle et al., “Maximal Reachable Temperatures for Western Europe in Current Climate,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1-13, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[155] Krishna K. Osuri et al., “Error Characterization of ARW Model in Forecasting Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Over North Indian Ocean,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 590, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[156] Zhipeng Pei et al., “A Method for Estimating the Background Column Concentration of CO2 Using the Lagrangian Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 60, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[157] Miguel Perpina et al., “Link Between Opaque Cloud Properties and Atmospheric Dynamics in Observations and Simulations of Current Climate in the Tropics, and Impact on Future Predictions,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 126, no. 17, pp. 1-19, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[158] Anh Phan, and Hiromichi Fukui, “Unusual Response of O3 and CH4 to NO2 Emissions Reduction in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” International Journal of Digital Earth, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[159] Stanislav A. Yamashkin et al., “Improving the Efficiency of Deep Learning Methods in Remote Sensing Data Analysis: Geosystem Approach,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 179516-179529, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[160] Roman Procyk, Shaun Lovejoy, and Raphael Hébert, “The Fractional Energy Balance Equation for Climate Projections through 2100,” Earth System Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 81-107, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[161] Boyin Huang et al., “Uncertainty Estimates for Sea Surface Temperature and Land Surface Air Temperature in NOAAGlobalTemp Version 5,” Journal of Climate, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 1351-1379, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[162] Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, and Michael Connolly, “Re-Evaluating the Role of Solar Variability on Northern Hemisphere Temperature Trends Since the 19th Century,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 150, pp. 409-452, 2015.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[163] Christine Nam et al., “Changes in Universal Thermal Climate Index from Regional Climate Model Projections Over European Beaches,” Climate Services, vol. 34, pp. 1-16, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[164] Veronika Valler et al., “ModE-RA: A Global Monthly Paleo-Reanalysis of the Modern Era 1421 to 2008,” Scientific Data, vol. 11, pp. 1-19, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[165] Ali Salem Al-Sakkaf et al., “Assessing Exposure to Climate Extremes Over the Arabian Peninsula Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data: Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trends,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 300, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[166] Eyob Betru Wegayehu, and Fiseha Behulu Muluneh, “Comparing Conceptual and Super Ensemble Deep Learning Models for Streamflow Simulation in Data-Scarce Catchments,” Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol. 52, pp. 1-24, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[167] Jing Qian et al., “Meteorological Influences on Daily Variation and Trend of Summertime Surface Ozone Over Years of 2015-2020: Quantification for Cities in the Yangtze River Delta,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 834, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[168] Jiangjun Ran et al., “Contrasting Lake Changes in Tibet Revealed by Recent Multi-Modal Satellite Observations,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 908, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[169] Lia Rapella et al., “Climate Change on Extreme Winds Already Affects Off-Shore Wind Power Availability in Europe,” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1-10, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[170] E. Real et al., “Atlas of Ozone Chemical Regimes in Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 320, pp. 1-17, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[171] Tiantian Chen, Yuxi Wang, and Li Peng, “Advanced Time-Lagged Effects of Drought on Global Vegetation Growth and its Social Risk in the 21st Century,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 347, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[172] Malcolm John Roberts et al., “Impact of Model Resolution on Tropical Cyclone Simulation Using the HighResMIP–PRIMAVERA Multimodel Ensemble,” Journal of Climate, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 2557-2583, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[173] Oussama Romdhani, Leo Matak, and Mostafa Momen, “Hurricane Track Trends and Environmental Flow Patterns under Surface Temperature Changes and Roughness Length Variations,” Weather and Climate Extremes, vol. 43, pp. 1-15, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[174] A. Routray et al., “Study Pre-and Post-Monsoon Storms Over NIO Region Using High Resolution IMDAA Reanalysis Dataset,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 62, pp. 555-574, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[175] V.N. Santhosh et al., “Assessing Biases in Atmospheric Parameters for Radiative Effects Estimation in Tropical Regions Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 314, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[176] Talukdar Sasanka, Krishna K. Osuri, and Dev Niyogi, “Machine Learning and Dynamics Based Error-Index Method for the Detection of Monsoon Onset Vortex Over the Arabian Sea: Climatology and Composite Structures,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 149, no. 751, pp. 537-555, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[177] Hongyu Chen, Tim Li, and Jing Cui, “The Reexamination of the Moisture-Vortex and Baroclinic Instabilities in the South Asian Monsoon,” Atmosphere, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-19, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[178] Nicola Scafetta, “Advanced Testing of Low, Medium, and High ECS CMIP6 GCM Simulations Versus ERA5-T2m,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1-13, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[179] Abdallah Shaheen et al., “Winter AOD Trend Changes Over the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East Region,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 5516-5535, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[180] Wenxiang Shen et al., “Improving BC Mixing State and CCN Activity Representation with Machine Learning in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 6 (CAM6),” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-25, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[181] S.C. Sherwood et al., “An Assessment of Earth’s Climate Sensitivity Using Multiple Lines of Evidence,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1-93, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[182] Vishal Singh, Anil Kumar Lohani, and Sanjay Kumar Jain, “Reconstruction of Extreme Flood Events by Performing Integrated Real-Time and Probabilistic Flood Modeling in the Periyar River Basin, Southern India,” Natural Hazards, vol. 112, pp. 2433-2463, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[183] Xin Su et al., “A High-Precision Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (HiPARA) for Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) Data: Development and Verification,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 253, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[184] Agnieszka Sulikowska, and Agnieszka Wypych, “Heat Extremes in Europe's Changing Climate: Definitions, Causes, Trends, Effects,” Geographical Works, no. 170, pp. 47-82, 2023.
[Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[185] Carl Svenhag et al., “Implementing Detailed Nucleation Predictions in the Earth System Model EC-Earth3.3.4: Sulfuric Acid-Ammonia Nucleation,” EGUsphere, pp. 1-28, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[186] Keyvan Soltani et al., “Forecasting Monthly Fluctuations of Lake Surface Areas Using Remote Sensing Techniques and Novel Machine Learning Methods,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 143, pp. 713-735, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[187] Qi Tang et al., “The Fully Coupled Regionally Refined Model of E3SM Version 2: Overview of the Atmosphere, Land, and River Results,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 3953-3995, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[188] Chad W. Thackeray et al., “Constraining the Increased Frequency of Global Precipitation Extremes under Warming,” Nature Climate Change, vol. 12, pp. 441-448, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[189] Katherine R. Travis et al., “Limitations in Representation of Physical Processes Prevent Successful Simulation of PM2.5 during KORUS-AQ,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 7933-7958, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[190] Sönke Dangendorf et al., “Acceleration of U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast Sea-Level Rise Amplified by Internal Climate Variability,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, pp. 1-11, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[191] Sylvia G. Dee et al., “Tracking the Strength of the Walker Circulation with Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 123, no. 14, pp. 7254-7270, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[192] Xiao Dong et al., “Climate Influence on the 2019 Fires in Amazonia,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 794, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[193] Francisco Estrada, and Pierre Perron, “Disentangling the Trend in the Warming of Urban Areas into Global and Local Factors,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1504, no. 1, pp. 230-246, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[194] Papa Fall et al., “Bias-Corrected CMIP5 Projections for Climate Change and Assessments of Impact on Malaria in Senegal under the VECTRI Model,” Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1-29, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[195] Andrew F. Feldman et al., “A Multi-Satellite Framework to Rapidly Evaluate Extreme Biosphere Cascades: The Western US 2021 Drought and Heatwave,” Global Change Biology, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 3634-3651, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[196] Carlos Antonio Fernandez-Palomino et al., “High-Resolution Climate Projection Dataset Based on CMIP6 for Peru and Ecuador: BASD-CMIP6-PE,” Scientific Data, vol. 11, pp. 1-14, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[197] Stephanie Fiedler et al., “Radiative Effects of Reduced Aerosol Emissions during the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Future Recovery,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 264, pp. 1-11, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[198] Shubham A. Gade, and Devidas D. Khedkar, “Implication of Climate Change on Crop Water Requirement in the Semi-Arid Region of Western Maharashtra, India,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 195, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[199] Meng Gao et al., “Large-Scale Climate Patterns Offer Preseasonal Hints on the Co-Occurrence of Heat Wave and O3 Pollution in China,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 120, no. 26, pp. 1-9, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[200] Chaim I. Garfinkel et al., “Stratospheric Variability Contributed to and Sustained the Recent Hiatus in Eurasian Winter Warming,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 374-382, 2017.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[201] Ronald Gelaro et al., “The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2),” Journal of Climate, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 5419-5454, 2017.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[202] Nikos Gialesakis et al., “A Twenty Year Record of Greenhouse Gases in the Eastern Mediterranean Atmosphere,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 864, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[203] Li Gong et al., “Middle Pleistocene Re-Organization of Australian Monsoon,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, pp. 1-14, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[204] Clare Goodess et al., “Climate Change Projections for Sustainable and Healthy Cities,” Buildings and Cities, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 812-836, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[205] Stephen G. Hesterberg, Kendal Jackson, and Susan S. Bell, “Climate Drives Coupled Regime Shifts Across Subtropical Estuarine Ecosystems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 119, no. 33, pp. 1-8, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[206] Chibuike Chiedozie Ibebuchi, and Cameron C. Lee, “Circulation Patterns Associated with Trends in Summer Temperature Variability Patterns in North America,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-13, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[207] Yuming Jin et al., “Impact of Changing Winds on the Mauna Loa CO2 Seasonal Cycle in Relation to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 127, no. 13, pp. 1-15, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[208] Sara Karam et al., “Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Climatic Extremes in the Congo River Basin,” Climatic Change, vol. 170, pp. 1-24, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[209] Thomas R. Karl, and Kevin E. Trenberth, “Modern Global Climate Change,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5651, pp. 1719-1723, 2003.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[210] Ali Katal et al., “Outdoor Heat Stress Assessment Using an Integrated Multi-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System: A Case Study of a Heatwave in Montreal,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 865, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[211] Christian A. Koch et al., “Climate Change and Obesity,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 575-587, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[212] Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath et al., “The Increasing Atmospheric CO2 over India: Comparison to Global Trends,” iScience, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1-18, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[213] Shaohua Zhao et al., “The Role of Satellite Remote Sensing in Mitigating and Adapting to Global Climate Change,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 904, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[214] Fabrice Lacroix et al., “Mismatch of N Release from the Permafrost and Vegetative Uptake Opens Pathways of Increasing Nitrous Oxide Emissions in the High Arctic,” Global Change Biology, vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 5973-5990, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[215] Michael J. Lecours et al., “Atlas of ACE Spectra of Clouds and Aerosols,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 292, pp. 1-15, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[216] Y.C. Lee, M.O. Wenig, and K.L. Chan, “Oceanic and Atmospheric Anomalies Associated with Extreme Precipitation Events in China 1983-2020,” Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, vol. 16, pp. 881-895, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[217] Luca Lelli et al., “Satellite Remote Sensing of Regional and Seasonal Arctic Cooling Showing a Multi-Decadal Trend Towards Brighter and More Liquid Clouds,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 2579-2611, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[218] Baosheng Li et al., “Middle East Warming in Spring Enhances Summer Rainfall over Pakistan,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, pp. 1-7, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[219] Xihong Lian et al., “Future Climate Imposes Pressure on Vulnerable Ecological Regions in China,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 858, no. 3, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[220] Antje Weisheimer et al., “Variability of ENSO Forecast Skill in 2-Year Global Reforecasts Over the 20th Century,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[221] Jiayuan Liao et al., “Water-Energy-Vegetation Nexus Explain Global Geographical Variation in Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 895, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[222] Laibao Liu et al., “Increasingly Negative Tropical Water–Interannual CO2 Growth Rate Coupling,” Nature, vol. 618, pp. 755-760, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[223] Joseph W. Lockwood et al., “Correlation between Sea-Level Rise and Aspects of Future Tropical Cyclone Activity in CMIP6 Models,” Earth’s Future, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1-19, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[224] Xiao Lu et al., “Surface and Tropospheric Ozone Trends in the Southern Hemisphere since 1990: Possible Linkages to Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation,” Science Bulletin, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 400-409, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[225] J.M. Maia, R.M. Curado da Silva, and J. Mingacho, “Evaluation of Effective Dose for Gamma-Rays of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes in Aviation: Spectral-and Atmosphere-Effects,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 215, pp. 1-111, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[226] L. Nazarenko et al., “Interactive Nature of Climate Change and Aerosol Forcing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 3457-3480, 2017.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[227] Yang Li et al., “Future Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Precipitation Extremes over China in a Warmer World: Insight from a Large Ensemble,” PLoS One, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1-12, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[228] Miguel Nogueira et al., “Upgrading Land-Cover and Vegetation Seasonality in the ECMWF Coupled System: Verification with FLUXNET Sites, METEOSAT Satellite Land Surface Temperatures, and ERA5 Atmospheric Reanalysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 126, no. 15, pp. 1-26, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[229] Kimberly A. Novick et al., “Informing Nature-Based Climate Solutions for the United States with the Best-Available Science,” Global Change Biology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 3778–3794, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[230] Shantanu Kumar Pani et al., “Long-Term Observation of Columnar Aerosol Optical Properties over the Remote South China Sea,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 905, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[231] Qihua Peng et al., “Surface Warming–Induced Global Acceleration of Upper Ocean Currents,” Science Advances, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 1-12, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[232] R. Peter et al., “A High Concentration CO2 Pool over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-11, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[233] Stephen Po-Chedley et al., “Internal Variability and Forcing Influence Model–Satellite Differences in the Rate of Tropical Tropospheric Warming,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 119, no. 47, pp. 1-8, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[234] Guoyu Ren et al., “Observed Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Over Asia, 1901-2020,” Climate Research, vol. 90, pp. 31-43, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[235] Yun Qian et al., “Urbanization Impact on Regional Climate and Extreme Weather: Current Understanding, Uncertainties, and Future Research Directions,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 39, pp. 819-860, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[236] Harsimranjit Kaur Romana et al., “Analysis of Air and Soil Quality around Thermal Power Plants and Coal Mines of Singrauli Region, India,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 1-22, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[237] Alfonso Saiz-Lopez et al., “Natural Short-Lived Halogens Exert an Indirect Cooling Effect on Climate,” Nature, vol. 618, pp. 967-973, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[238] Seyni Salack et al., “Low-Cost Adaptation Options to Support Green Growth in Agriculture, Water Resources, and Coastal Zones,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, pp. 1-16, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[239] Benjamin D. Santer et al., “Quantifying Stochastic Uncertainty in Detection Time of Human-Caused Climate Signals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 116, no. 40, pp. 19821-19827, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[240] C.E. Scott et al., “Impact on Short-Lived Climate Forcers Increases Projected Warming Due to Deforestation,” Nature Communications, vol. 9, pp. 1-9, 2018.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[241] Martín Senande-Rivera, Damián Insua-Costa, and Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, “Spatial and Temporal Expansion of Global Wildland Fire Activity in Response to Climate Change,” Nature Communications, vol. 13, pp. 1-9, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[242] Swathi Shetty, Pruthviraj Umesh, and Amba Shetty, “Future Transition in Climate Extremes over Western Ghats of India Based on CMIP6 Models,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 195, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[243] Hideo Shiogama et al., “Emergent Constraints on Future Precipitation Changes,” Nature, vol. 602, pp. 612-616, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[244] Benjamin M. Sleeter et al., “Operational Assessment Tool for Forest Carbon Dynamics for the United States: A New Spatially Explicit Approach Linking the LUCAS and CBM-CFS3 Models,” Carbon Balance and Management, vol. 17, pp. 1-26, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[245] Jiecheng Song et al., “Data driven Pathway Analysis and Forecast of Global Warming and Sea Level Rise,” Scientific Reports, vol. 13, pp. 1-14, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[246] Aurélien Stolzenbach et al., “Martian Atmospheric Aerosols Composition and Distribution Retrievals during the First Martian Year of NOMAD/TGO Solar Occultation Measurements: 1. Methodology and Application to the MY 34 Global Dust Storm,” Journal of Geophysical Research Planets, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 1-27, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[247] Lili Tan et al., “Assessment of the Sustainability of Groundwater Utilization and Crop Production under Optimized Irrigation Strategies in the North China Plain under Future Climate Change,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 899, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[248] M. Tanarhte et al., “Severe Droughts in North Africa: A Review of Drivers, Impacts and Management,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 250, 2024.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[249] Penghao Tian et al., “Ionospheric Irregularity Reconstruction Using Multisource Data Fusion Via Deep Learning,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 13413-13431, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[250] Amar Deep Tiwari et al., “A Synthesis of Hydroclimatic, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Data for Transdisciplinary Research in the Mekong,” Scientific Data, vol. 10, pp. 1-26, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[251] Ioanna Tsagouri et al., “Ionosphere Variability I: Advances in Observational, Monitoring and Detection Capabilities,” Advances in Space Research, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[252] I-Chun Tsai et al., “Projecting Ozone Impact on Crop Yield in Taiwan under Climate Warming,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 846, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[253] György Varga et al., “Saharan, Aral-Caspian and Middle East Dust Travels to Finland (1980-2022),” Environment International, vol. 180, pp. 1-14, 2023.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[254] R.S.W. Van De Wal et al., “A High-End Estimate of Sea Level Rise for Practitioners,” Earth’s Future, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1-24, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[255] Jiapeng Miao, and Dabang Jiang, “Multidecadal Variations in East Asian Winter Temperature Since 1880: Internal Variability Versus External Forcing,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 49, no. 20, pp. 1-9, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[256] Nischal, Raju Attada, and Kieran M.R. Hunt, “Evaluating Winter Precipitation over the Western Himalayas in a High-Resolution Indian Regional Reanalysis Using Multisource Climate Datasets,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1613-1633, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[257] Weiping Ding et al., “Explainability of Artificial Intelligence Methods, Applications and Challenges: A Comprehensive Survey,” Information Sciences, vol. 615, pp. 238-292, 2022.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[258] Antoine Allam et al., “Mediterranean Specific Climate Classification and Future Evolution under RCP Scenarios,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, pp. 1-25, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[259] Zilefac Elvis Asong et al., “Regional Scenarios of Change Over Canada: Future Climate Projections,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, pp. 1-40, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[260] Roberto San José et al., “Global Climate Driven Effects on Urban Air Pollution Simulations Using Very High Spatial Resolution,” International Journal of Environment and Pollution, vol. 66, no. 1-3, pp. 143-161, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[261] Jorge J. Escurra Aguirre, and Charles A. Jones, “Water Use Efficiency and Storage Capacity in South Asia by 2050,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1519–1539, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[262] Yulong Yao et al., “Rapid Changes in Land-Sea Thermal Contrast across China’s Coastal Zone in a Warming Climate,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 2049-2067, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[263] Yong Zhang et al., “Glacier Surface Mass Balance in the Suntar-Khayata Mountains, Northeastern Siberia,” Water, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1-21, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[264] Armin Ahmadi et al., “Assessment of MC&MCMC Uncertainty Analysis Frameworks on SWAT Model by Focusing on Future Runoff Prediction in a Mountainous Watershed Via CMIP5 Models,” Journal of Water and Climate Change, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1811-1828, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[265] Pengfei Han et al., “Projected Changes of Alpine Grassland Carbon Dynamics in Response to Climate Change and Elevated CO2 Concentrations under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) Scenarios,” PLoS One, vol. 14, no. 7, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[266] Samaneh Lesani, and Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, “Climate Change Impact on Caspian Sea Wave Conditions in the Noshahr Port,” Ocean Dynamics, vol. 69, pp. 1287-1310, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[267] Xiaomin Zeng et al., “Spatial Patterns of Precipitation-Induced Moisture Availability and their Effects on the Divergence of Conifer Stem Growth in the Western and Eastern Parts of China’s Semi-Arid Region,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 451, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[268] Athira Krishnan, and Prasad K. Bhaskaran, “Performance of CMIP5 Wind Speed from Global Climate Models for the Bay of Bengal Region,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 3398-3416, 2020.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[269] Sungbo Shim et al., “Effects of Anthropogenic and Natural Forcings on the Summer Temperature Variations in East Asia during the 20th Century,” Atmosphere, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1-22, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[270] Mojisola Oluwayemisi Adeniyi, “On the Influence of Variations in Solar Irradiance on Climate: A Case Study of West Africa,” Earth Systems and Environment, vol. 3, pp. 189-202, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[271] Jorge E. González et al., “New York City Panel on Climate Change 2019 Report Chapter 2: New Methods for Assessing Extreme Temperatures, Heavy Downpours, and Drought,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1439, no. 1, pp. 30-70, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[272] Mahsa Jahandideh-Tehrani et al., “Review of Climate Change Impacts on Predicted River Streamflow in Tropical Rivers,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 191, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[273] Iqbal H. Sarker, “Machine Learning: Algorithms, Real-World Applications and Research Directions,” SN Computer Science, vol. 2, pp. 1-21, 2021.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[274] S. Ragettli et al., “Climate Change Impacts on Summer Flood Frequencies in Two Mountainous Catchments in China and Switzerland,” Hydrology Research, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 4-25, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[275] Hamed Yassaghi, Nariman Mostafavi, and Simi Hoque, “Evaluation of Current and Future Hourly Weather Data Intended for Building Designs: A Philadelphia Case Study,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 199, pp. 491-511, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[276] Neil C. Swart et al., “The Canadian Earth System Model Version 5 (CanESM5.0.3),” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 4823-4873, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[277] Peter M. Caldwell et al., “The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution,” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 4095-4146, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[278] E.G. Nisbet et al., “Very Strong Atmospheric Methane Growth in the 4 Years 2014-2017: Implications for the Paris Agreement,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 318-342, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[279] Jean-Christophe Golaz et al., “The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Overview and Evaluation at Standard Resolution,” Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 2089-2129, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[280] Raktima Dey et al., “A Review of Past and Projected Changes in Australia’s Rainfall,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Climate Change, vol. 10, no. 3, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[281] A.F. Bais et al., “Ozone-Climate Interactions and Effects on Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 602-640, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[282] Shichang Kang et al., “Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Change in the Third Pole Region: Current Progress and Future Prospects,” National Science Review, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 796-809, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]
[283] Aryeh Feinberg et al., “Improved Tropospheric and Stratospheric Sulfur Cycle in the Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Model SOCOL-AERv2,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 3863-3887, 2019.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Publisher Link]